Menu

EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

Donate

Vinyl chloride

City of Houston

Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen used for production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. Discharges from plastics manufacturing can contaminate drinking water with vinyl chloride. Read More.

Exposure to vinyl chloride increases the risk of cancer and can damage the liver and nervous system. The California public health goal of 0.05 parts per billion, set to protect against cancer, is 40 times lower than the amount allowed by the federal government, which is a Maximum Contaminant Level of 2 parts per billion.

Plastic pipes made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC (CPVC) are widely used for drinking water distribution lines and internal plumbing, raising concern about vinyl chloride contamination of drinking water. A study published in 2011 by Ryan Walter of Cornell University School of Civil and Environmental Engineering suggested that small amounts of vinyl chloride can leach from PVC pipes. Vinyl chloride can also form in the pipes as a result of water disinfection with chlorine.

In an assessment completed in 2000, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment stated that drinking water is not a significant source of exposure to vinyl chloride for the general population.

Click here to read more about carcinogenic VOCs.

 

301

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
2012ND750ND
2013ND760ND
2014ND250ND
2015ND390ND
2016ND430ND
2017ND430ND

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.05 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.05 ppb for vinyl chloride was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against cancer.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 2 ppb

The legal limit for vinyl chloride, established in 1987, was based on analytical detection limits at the time that the standard was set. This limit may not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to vinyl chloride exposure.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-01-31AB79731ND
2012-01-31AB79733ND
2012-01-31AB79730ND
2012-01-31AB79727ND
2012-01-31AB79732ND
2012-01-31AB79735ND
2012-01-31AB79725ND
2012-01-31AB79728ND
2012-01-31AB79729ND
2012-01-31AB79726ND
2012-01-31AB79724ND
2012-01-31AB79734ND
2012-02-01AB79745ND
2012-02-01AB79739ND
2012-02-01AB79741ND
2012-02-01AB79736ND
2012-02-01AB79738ND
2012-02-01AB79740ND
2012-02-01AB79753ND
2012-02-01AB79744ND
2012-02-01AB79752ND
2012-02-01AB79747ND
2012-02-01AB79746ND
2012-04-10AB86410ND
2012-04-10AB86406ND
2012-05-23AB90921ND
2012-05-23AB90927ND
2012-05-23AB90925ND
2012-05-23AB90923ND
2012-06-12AB92310ND
2012-07-24AB96062ND
2012-07-24AB96064ND
2012-08-10AB97995ND
2012-08-10AB97985ND
2012-08-10AB97987ND
2012-08-10AB97989ND
2012-08-10AB97997ND
2012-08-27AB99665ND
2012-09-19AC01320ND
2012-09-19AC01318ND
2012-09-19AC01248ND
2012-09-19AC01258ND
2012-09-19AC01253ND
2012-09-19AC01252ND
2012-09-19AC01251ND
2012-09-19AC01249ND
2012-09-19AC01245ND
2012-09-19AC01255ND
2012-09-19AC01246ND
2012-09-19AC01250ND
2012-09-19AC01254ND
2012-09-19AC01259ND
2012-09-20AC01557ND
2012-09-20AC01569ND
2012-09-20AC01525ND
2012-09-20AC01521ND
2012-09-20AC01522ND
2012-09-20AC01524ND
2012-11-07AC04864ND
2012-11-07AC04868ND
2012-11-07AC04865ND
2012-11-07AC04854ND
2012-11-07AC04862ND
2012-11-07AC04867ND
2012-11-07AC04858ND
2012-11-07AC04866ND
2012-11-07AC04869ND
2012-11-07AC04860ND
2012-11-08AC04861ND
2012-11-08AC04853ND
2012-11-08AC04855ND
2012-11-08AC04857ND
2012-11-08AC04856ND
2012-11-08AC04863ND
2012-11-19AC05439ND
2013-02-25AC11546ND
2013-02-25AC11541ND
2013-02-25AC11532ND
2013-02-25AC11542ND
2013-02-25AC11536ND
2013-02-25AC11533ND
2013-02-25AC11537ND
2013-02-26AC11755ND
2013-02-26AC11712ND
2013-02-26AC11713ND
2013-02-26AC11714ND
2013-02-26AC11715ND
2013-02-26AC11719ND
2013-02-26AC11710ND
2013-02-26AC11721ND
2013-02-26AC11718ND
2013-02-26AC11711ND
2013-06-12AC22015ND
2013-06-12AC22012ND
2013-06-12AC22014ND
2013-06-12AC22013ND
2013-06-12AC22024ND
2013-06-12AC22025ND
2013-06-12AC22011ND
2013-06-12AC22034ND
2013-06-13AC22033ND
2013-06-13AC22022ND
2013-06-13AC22026ND
2013-06-13AC22010ND
2013-06-13AC22021ND
2013-06-13AC22017ND
2013-06-13AC22052ND
2013-06-13AC22028ND
2013-08-08AC27249ND
2013-08-08AC27265ND
2013-08-08AC27243ND
2013-08-08AC27259ND
2013-08-08AC27253ND
2013-08-08AC27263ND
2013-08-08AC27257ND
2013-08-08AC27261ND
2013-08-08AC27255ND
2013-09-24AC31120ND
2013-09-24AC31125ND
2013-09-24AC31121ND
2013-09-24AC31123ND
2013-09-24AC31127ND
2013-09-24AC31122ND
2013-09-24AC31124ND
2013-09-24AC31128ND
2013-09-24AC31130ND
2013-09-24AC31129ND
2013-09-24AC31126ND
2013-09-24AC31119ND
2013-09-24AC31132ND
2013-09-25AC31364ND
2013-09-25AC31299ND
2013-09-25AC31289ND
2013-09-25AC31301ND
2013-10-29AC33630ND
2013-12-16AC37603ND
2013-12-16AC37608ND
2013-12-16AC37607ND
2013-12-16AC37609ND
2013-12-16AC37606ND
2013-12-16AC37610ND
2013-12-17AC37771ND
2013-12-17AC37777ND
2013-12-17AC37778ND
2013-12-17AC37774ND
2013-12-17AC37776ND
2013-12-17AC37775ND
2013-12-17AC37770ND
2013-12-17AC37769ND
2013-12-17AC37781ND
2013-12-17AC37779ND
2014-04-16AC50842ND
2014-04-16AC50844ND
2014-04-17AC51090ND
2014-04-17AC51078ND
2014-04-17AC51084ND
2014-04-17AC51082ND
2014-06-03AC55801ND
2014-07-15AC59698ND
2014-07-15AC59690ND
2014-07-15AC59692ND
2014-07-15AC59694ND
2014-07-15AC59688ND
2014-07-16AC59835ND
2014-07-16AC59831ND
2014-07-16AC59839ND
2014-07-16AC59849ND
2014-07-16AC59837ND
2014-07-16AC59845ND
2014-10-08AC69209ND
2014-10-09AC69350ND
2014-10-09AC69348ND
2014-12-09AC74196ND
2014-12-09AC74204ND
2014-12-18AC75459ND
2014-12-18AC75455ND
2015-03-04AC82952ND
2015-03-05AC82914ND
2015-03-24AC85888ND
2015-06-04AC94641ND
2015-06-04AC94645ND
2015-06-04AC94639ND
2015-06-04AC94643ND
2015-06-04AC94647ND
2015-07-21AD00437ND
2015-07-21AD00441ND
2015-07-21AD00429ND
2015-07-21AD00435ND
2015-07-21AD00443ND
2015-07-21AD00433ND
2015-07-21AD00405ND
2015-07-21AD00407ND
2015-07-22AD00630ND
2015-07-22AD00628ND
2015-07-22AD00632ND
2015-07-22AD00626ND
2015-07-22AD00624ND
2015-07-22AD00638ND
2015-09-17AD07597ND
2015-09-17AD07599ND
2015-10-22AD11558ND
2015-10-22AD11536ND
2015-10-22AD11542ND
2015-10-22AD11532ND
2015-10-22AD11548ND
2015-10-22AD11550ND
2015-11-12AD13376ND
2015-11-12AD13378ND
2015-11-12AD13382ND
2015-11-12AD13386ND
2015-11-12AD13372ND
2015-11-12AD13380ND
2015-11-12AD13390ND
2015-12-08AD15973ND
2015-12-08AD15967ND
2016-02-18AD24361ND
2016-02-18AD24331ND
2016-02-18AD24299ND
2016-02-18AD24379ND
2016-03-03AD26927ND
2016-03-17AD29381ND
2016-03-17AD29379ND
2016-03-23AD30127ND
2016-03-23AD30131ND
2016-03-23AD30129ND
2016-03-23AD30155ND
2016-06-03AD39456ND
2016-06-08AD39810ND
2016-06-08AD39818ND
2016-06-08AD39806ND
2016-06-08AD39802ND
2016-06-08AD39794ND
2016-06-08AD39808ND
2016-06-16AD41019ND
2016-06-16AD41015ND
2016-06-16AD41013ND
2016-09-20AD50395ND
2016-09-20AD50391ND
2016-09-20AD50373ND
2016-09-20AD50375ND
2016-09-20AD50381ND
2016-09-21AD50831ND
2016-09-21AD50829ND
2016-09-21AD50809ND
2016-09-21AD50825ND
2016-09-22AD50815ND
2016-10-06AD52680ND
2016-10-06AD52682ND
2016-10-06AD52678ND
2016-10-06AD52676ND
2016-10-06AD52674ND
2016-11-18AD58909ND
2016-11-18AD58877ND
2016-11-21AD58875ND
2016-11-21AD58903ND
2016-11-21AD58897ND
2016-11-21AD58879ND
2016-11-21AD58871ND
2017-01-26AD67193ND
2017-01-26AD67205ND
2017-01-26AD67203ND
2017-03-01AD72767ND
2017-03-02AD73096ND
2017-03-02AD73124ND
2017-03-28AD77142ND
2017-03-28AD77184ND
2017-03-28AD77180ND
2017-03-28AD77186ND
2017-03-28AD77178ND
2017-03-29AD77428ND
2017-03-29AD77430ND
2017-03-29AD77444ND
2017-03-29AD77424ND
2017-04-26AD81177ND
2017-04-27AD81524ND
2017-04-27AD81528ND
2017-07-06AD88484ND
2017-07-06AD88482ND
2017-07-25AD90637ND
2017-07-25AD90641ND
2017-07-25AD90639ND
2017-07-26AD90867ND
2017-07-26AD90845ND
2017-08-15AD93122ND
2017-08-15AD93098ND
2017-08-15AD93120ND
2017-08-15AD93104ND
2017-09-11AD95487ND
2017-09-11AD95493ND
2017-09-11AD95485ND
2017-09-26AD98055ND
2017-09-26AD98057ND
2017-11-07AE03895ND
2017-11-07AE03877ND
2017-11-07AE03875ND
2017-11-07AE03897ND
2017-11-07AE03883ND
2017-11-07AE03881ND
2017-11-14AE04773ND
2017-12-04AE06600ND
2017-12-04AE06598ND