EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE



City of Aiken

Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.





Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)


Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20120.700 ppm220.640 ppm - 0.760 ppm
20130.780 ppm110.780 ppm
20140.683 ppm440.510 ppm - 0.760 ppm
20150.720 ppm220.640 ppm - 0.800 ppm
20160.580 ppm110.580 ppm
20170.764 ppm550.670 ppm - 0.840 ppm

ppm = parts per million

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

ppm = parts per million

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-04-04AD054390.760 ppm
2012-04-12AD058220.640 ppm
2013-04-24AD228370.780 ppm
2014-05-21AD401960.760 ppm
2014-05-21AD401980.700 ppm
2014-05-21AD402000.510 ppm
2014-05-21AD402090.760 ppm
2015-05-20AD556990.640 ppm
2015-11-09AD655120.800 ppm
2016-05-04AD753370.580 ppm
2017-07-12AD971390.780 ppm
2017-07-12AD971370.670 ppm
2017-07-12AD971760.840 ppm
2017-07-12AD971430.760 ppm
2017-07-13AD971420.770 ppm