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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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2,4-D

Emmaus Borough Public Water

2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) is a herbicide that can be applied directly to GMO corn and soy plants engineered to withstand this toxic chemical. Americans' exposures to 2,4-D from food and drinking water will likely increase in years to come as farmers plant more of these GMO crops. Read More.

2,4-D is an endocrine disruptor that interferes with thyroid hormones. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies 2,4-D as possibly carcinogenic to humans. In occupational studies, farmers exposed to 2,4-D tended to have higher incidences of damaged and malformed sperm. Laboratory animals exposed to 2,4-D during gestation are born underdeveloped and are more likely to have birth defects.

 

16

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
2012N/A00N/A
2013N/A00N/A
2014ND80ND
2015N/A00N/A
2016N/A00N/A
2017ND80ND

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 20 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 20 ppb for 2,4-D was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against harm to internal organs.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 70 ppb

The legal limit for 2,4-D, established in 1991, was based on toxicity studies in laboratory animals conducted in the 1980s. This limit may not fully protect against harm to the nervous system, harm to the thyroid, and hormone disruption.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2014-05-27140021797ND
2014-05-27140021795ND
2014-05-27140021798ND
2014-05-27140021796ND
2014-08-28140038949ND
2014-08-28140038946ND
2014-08-28140038948ND
2014-08-28140038947ND
2017-05-2416304232ND
2017-05-2416304231ND
2017-05-2416304230ND
2017-05-2416304233ND
2017-08-3116771720ND
2017-08-3116771721ND
2017-08-3116771718ND
2017-08-3116771719ND