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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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2,4-D

Philadelphia Water Department

2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) is a herbicide that can be applied directly to GMO corn and soy plants engineered to withstand this toxic chemical. Americans' exposures to 2,4-D from food and drinking water will likely increase in years to come as farmers plant more of these GMO crops. Read More.

2,4-D is an endocrine disruptor that interferes with thyroid hormones. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies 2,4-D as possibly carcinogenic to humans. In occupational studies, farmers exposed to 2,4-D tended to have higher incidences of damaged and malformed sperm. Laboratory animals exposed to 2,4-D during gestation are born underdeveloped and are more likely to have birth defects.

 

23

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
2012ND30ND
2013N/A00N/A
2014ND60ND
2015ND30ND
2016ND30ND
20170.163 ppb82ND - 0.700 ppb

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 20 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 20 ppb for 2,4-D was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against harm to internal organs.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 70 ppb

The legal limit for 2,4-D, established in 1991, was based on toxicity studies in laboratory animals conducted in the 1980s. This limit may not fully protect against harm to the nervous system, harm to the thyroid, and hormone disruption.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-04-026604134ND
2012-04-026604132ND
2012-04-026604133ND
2014-04-077422122ND
2014-04-077422120ND
2014-04-077422118ND
2014-08-197572176ND
2014-08-197572174ND
2014-08-197572178ND
2015-06-1012888323ND
2015-06-1012888347ND
2015-06-1012888371ND
2016-06-0314411766ND
2016-06-0314411741ND
2016-06-0314411716ND
2017-05-1616100995ND
2017-05-16161009700.700 ppb
2017-05-16161009450.600 ppb
2017-07-2416420633ND
2017-07-2416420608ND
2017-07-2416420583ND
2017-11-0617029085ND
2017-11-0617029086ND