Menu

EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

Donate

Fluoride

North Penn Water Authority

Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.

 

34

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20120.0102 ppm121ND - 0.122 ppm
2013N/A00N/A
2014N/A00N/A
20150.0109 ppm212ND - 0.124 ppm
2016ND10ND
2017N/A00N/A

ppm = parts per million

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

ppm = parts per million

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-05-0720121655ND
2012-05-0720121656ND
2012-05-0720121659ND
2012-05-0720121657ND
2012-05-07201216580.122 ppm
2012-05-1420121756ND
2012-05-1420121755ND
2012-05-1420121754ND
2012-05-1420121753ND
2012-05-1420121752ND
2012-05-1420121751ND
2012-07-2320122540ND
2015-01-1912287141ND
2015-01-1912287144ND
2015-01-1912287138ND
2015-04-2012633072ND
2015-04-2012633078ND
2015-04-2012633069ND
2015-04-2012633081ND
2015-04-2012633075ND
2015-04-2012633066ND
2015-04-2012633063ND
2015-05-1912749691ND
2015-05-1912749697ND
2015-05-19127496940.105 ppm
2015-05-1912749688ND
2015-05-1912749685ND
2015-08-1713135653ND
2015-08-1713135659ND
2015-08-1713135647ND
2015-08-1713135650ND
2015-08-17131356560.124 ppm
2015-12-0913633904ND
2016-08-2314735728ND