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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Vinyl chloride

Pennsylvania American Royersford

Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen used for production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. Discharges from plastics manufacturing can contaminate drinking water with vinyl chloride. Read More.

Exposure to vinyl chloride increases the risk of cancer and can damage the liver and nervous system. The California public health goal of 0.05 parts per billion, set to protect against cancer, is 40 times lower than the amount allowed by the federal government, which is a Maximum Contaminant Level of 2 parts per billion.

Plastic pipes made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC (CPVC) are widely used for drinking water distribution lines and internal plumbing, raising concern about vinyl chloride contamination of drinking water. A study published in 2011 by Ryan Walter of Cornell University School of Civil and Environmental Engineering suggested that small amounts of vinyl chloride can leach from PVC pipes. Vinyl chloride can also form in the pipes as a result of water disinfection with chlorine.

In an assessment completed in 2000, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment stated that drinking water is not a significant source of exposure to vinyl chloride for the general population.

Click here to read more about carcinogenic VOCs.

 

32

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
2012ND20ND
2013ND20ND
2014ND90ND
2015ND100ND
2016ND40ND
2017ND50ND

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.05 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.05 ppb for vinyl chloride was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against cancer.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 2 ppb

The legal limit for vinyl chloride, established in 1987, was based on analytical detection limits at the time that the standard was set. This limit may not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to vinyl chloride exposure.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-02-0816353301ND
2012-02-0816353901ND
2013-04-2321984601ND
2013-04-2321984701ND
2014-04-0225340001ND
2014-04-0225341501ND
2014-04-0325340301ND
2014-04-0325340801ND
2014-06-2525340501ND
2014-08-0626818001ND
2014-08-0626818101ND
2014-10-0627104001ND
2014-10-0627103901ND
2015-01-0812283050ND
2015-01-0812283029ND
2015-04-0912628870ND
2015-04-0912628891ND
2015-04-0912628935ND
2015-04-0912628912ND
2015-07-1313008751ND
2015-09-1613260277ND
2015-10-0613385338ND
2015-10-0613385317ND
2016-04-0514097874ND
2016-04-0514097832ND
2016-04-0514097897ND
2016-04-0514097853ND
2017-04-1115931642ND
2017-04-1115931579ND
2017-04-1115931665ND
2017-04-1115931600ND
2017-04-1115931621ND