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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Fluoride

Pennsylvania American Royersford

Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.

 

15

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
2012ND60ND
2013ND10ND
2014ND10ND
2015ND50ND
2016ND10ND
2017ND10ND

ppm = parts per million

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

ppm = parts per million

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-04-1017211501ND
2012-08-0718201301ND
2012-08-0718201601ND
2012-08-0718201701ND
2012-08-0718201801ND
2012-08-0718895301ND
2013-08-0823076901ND
2014-08-1226516801ND
2015-08-0613131556ND
2015-08-0613131570ND
2015-08-0613131583ND
2015-08-0613131543ND
2015-09-1613260286ND
2016-08-0414730028ND
2017-08-1516560897ND