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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Fluoride

Northampton Bucks County Municipal Authority

Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.

 

51

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20120.158 ppm228ND - 0.649 ppm
20130.451 ppm1412ND - 0.606 ppm
2014N/A00N/A
20150.0523 ppm152ND - 0.574 ppm
2016N/A00N/A
2017N/A00N/A

ppm = parts per million

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

ppm = parts per million

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-10-17L4361807-14ND
2012-10-17L4361807-1ND
2012-10-17L4361807-12ND
2012-10-17L4361807-13ND
2012-10-17L4361807-60.375 ppm
2012-10-17L4361807-50.397 ppm
2012-10-17L4361807-10ND
2012-10-17L4361807-9ND
2012-10-17L4361807-2ND
2012-10-17L4361807-3ND
2012-10-17L4361807-4ND
2012-10-17L4361807-7ND
2012-10-17L4361807-8ND
2012-10-17L4361807-11ND
2012-11-16L4392672-90.459 ppm
2012-11-16L4392672-50.295 ppm
2012-11-16L4392672-7ND
2012-11-16L4392672-20.258 ppm
2012-11-16L4392672-60.649 ppm
2012-11-16L4392672-10.646 ppm
2012-11-16L4392672-40.390 ppm
2012-12-14L4422964-2ND
2013-02-21L4499410-60.588 ppm
2013-02-21L4499410-4ND
2013-02-21L4499410-70.558 ppm
2013-02-21L4499410-20.558 ppm
2013-02-21L4499410-10.606 ppm
2013-02-21L4499410-30.514 ppm
2013-02-21L4499410-50.417 ppm
2013-04-25L1787920-60.578 ppm
2013-04-25L1787920-30.598 ppm
2013-04-25L1787920-70.578 ppm
2013-04-25L1787920-20.403 ppm
2013-04-25L1787920-5ND
2013-04-25L1787920-40.327 ppm
2013-04-25L1787920-10.583 ppm
2015-08-24131244720.210 ppm
2015-08-2413124496ND
2015-08-2413124484ND
2015-08-24131245560.574 ppm
2015-08-2413124544ND
2015-08-2413124460ND
2015-08-2413124436ND
2015-08-2413124448ND
2015-08-2413124592ND
2015-08-2413124580ND
2015-08-2413124568ND
2015-08-2413124532ND
2015-08-2413124520ND
2015-08-2413124508ND
2015-08-2413124424ND