EWG's Tap Water Database



Del-Co Water Company Inc.

Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.





Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)


Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20100.962 ppm440.758 ppm - 1.29 ppm
20111.14 ppm441.03 ppm - 1.34 ppm
20120.957 ppm440.857 ppm - 1.03 ppm
20130.805 ppm440.684 ppm - 0.904 ppm
20140.982 ppm550.817 ppm - 1.20 ppm
20150.970 ppm440.814 ppm - 1.08 ppm

ppm = parts per million.

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

The enforceable federal standard that defines the highest level of a contaminant allowed in drinking water.

ppm = parts per million.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level Goal (MCLG)4 ppm

A non-enforceable federal health guideline. For cancer-causing chemicals, these health goals are typically set to zero.

ppm = parts per million.

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2010-02-08101837010.961 ppm
2010-02-08101838010.758 ppm
2010-02-08101839010.840 ppm
2010-06-07104726-011.29 ppm
2011-01-1711-10359-01A1.34 ppm
2011-01-1711-10358-011.09 ppm
2011-01-1711-10357-011.11 ppm
2011-06-1511-14240-01A1.03 ppm
2012-01-0912-10325-011.02 ppm
2012-01-0912-10322-01A0.920 ppm
2012-01-0912-10323-01A0.857 ppm
2012-06-0512-16249-031.03 ppm
2013-01-0813-10284-010.904 ppm
2013-01-0813-10283-01A0.850 ppm
2013-01-0813-10282-01A0.783 ppm
2013-06-1013-17185-01A0.684 ppm
2014-01-0714-10164-03A0.881 ppm
2014-01-0714-10161-03A0.817 ppm
2014-01-0714-10165-01A0.902 ppm
2014-05-0714-15406-01A1.20 ppm
2014-06-3014-18397-01A1.11 ppm
2015-01-0515-10020-010.957 ppm
2015-01-0515-10022-01A1.08 ppm
2015-01-0515-10021-01A1.03 ppm
2015-06-0815-17517-01A0.814 ppm