EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE


Vinyl chloride

Syracuse City

Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen used for production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. Discharges from plastics manufacturing can contaminate drinking water with vinyl chloride. Read More.

Exposure to vinyl chloride increases the risk of cancer and can damage the liver and nervous system. The California public health goal of 0.05 parts per billion, set to protect against cancer, is 40 times lower than the amount allowed by the federal government, which is a Maximum Contaminant Level of 2 parts per billion.

Plastic pipes made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC (CPVC) are widely used for drinking water distribution lines and internal plumbing, raising concern about vinyl chloride contamination of drinking water. A study published in 2011 by Ryan Walter of Cornell University School of Civil and Environmental Engineering suggested that small amounts of vinyl chloride can leach from PVC pipes. Vinyl chloride can also form in the pipes as a result of water disinfection with chlorine.

In an assessment completed in 2000, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment stated that drinking water is not a significant source of exposure to vinyl chloride for the general population.

Click here to read more about carcinogenic VOCs.





Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)


Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.05 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.05 ppb for vinyl chloride was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against cancer.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 2 ppb

The legal limit for vinyl chloride, established in 1987, was based on analytical detection limits at the time that the standard was set. This limit may not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to vinyl chloride exposure.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-02-161Q2012 POCS SYRND
2012-05-082Q2012 POCS SYRND
2012-08-143Q2012 POCS SYRND
2012-11-134Q2012 POCS SYRND
2013-02-121Q2013 POCS SYRND
2013-05-142013 POCS SYRACUND
2013-08-133Q2013 POCS SYRAND
2013-11-134Q2013 POCS SYRAND
2014-02-111Q2014 POCS SYRND
2014-05-132Q2014 POCS SYRND
2014-08-123Q2014 POCS SYRND
2014-11-124Q2014 POCS SYRND
2015-02-111Q2015 POC SYRND
2015-05-132015 POCS SYRND
2015-08-113Q2015 POCS SYRND
2015-11-094Q2015 POCS SYRND
2016-02-091Q2016 POCS SYRND
2016-05-102Q2016 POC SYRND
2016-08-113Q2016 POC SYRND
2016-11-164Q2016 POCS SYRND
2017-02-161Q2017 POCS SYRND
2017-05-102Q2017 POCS SYRND
2017-08-163Q2017 POCS SYRND
2017-11-154Q2017 POCS SYRND