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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Vinyl chloride

Union Springs Village

Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen used for production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. Discharges from plastics manufacturing can contaminate drinking water with vinyl chloride. Read More.

Exposure to vinyl chloride increases the risk of cancer and can damage the liver and nervous system. The California public health goal of 0.05 parts per billion, set to protect against cancer, is 40 times lower than the amount allowed by the federal government, which is a Maximum Contaminant Level of 2 parts per billion.

Plastic pipes made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC (CPVC) are widely used for drinking water distribution lines and internal plumbing, raising concern about vinyl chloride contamination of drinking water. A study published in 2011 by Ryan Walter of Cornell University School of Civil and Environmental Engineering suggested that small amounts of vinyl chloride can leach from PVC pipes. Vinyl chloride can also form in the pipes as a result of water disinfection with chlorine.

In an assessment completed in 2000, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment stated that drinking water is not a significant source of exposure to vinyl chloride for the general population.

Click here to read more about carcinogenic VOCs.

 

22

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
2012ND30ND
2013ND40ND
2014ND40ND
2015ND40ND
2016ND40ND
2017ND30ND

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.05 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.05 ppb for vinyl chloride was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against cancer.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 2 ppb

The legal limit for vinyl chloride, established in 1987, was based on analytical detection limits at the time that the standard was set. This limit may not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to vinyl chloride exposure.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-02-071Q2012POCUSND
2012-05-092Q2012POCUSND
2012-08-083Q2012POCUSND
2013-02-061Q2013POCUSND
2013-05-152Q2013POCSUSND
2013-08-063Q2013POCUSND
2013-11-134Q2013POCSUSND
2014-02-121Q2014POCSUSND
2014-04-162Q2014POCSUSND
2014-08-133Q2014POCSUSND
2014-11-054Q2014POCSUSND
2015-01-141Q2015VOCUSND
2015-05-062Q2015POCUSND
2015-08-043Q2015POCUSND
2015-09-293QD2015POCSUSND
2016-02-101Q2016VOCUSND
2016-05-052Q2016VOCUSND
2016-08-023Q2016VOCUSND
2016-11-094Q2016POCUSND
2017-02-081Q2017POCUSND
2017-05-092Q2017POCUSND
2017-08-083Q2017POCUSND