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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Vinyl chloride

City of Gulfport

Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen used for production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. Discharges from plastics manufacturing can contaminate drinking water with vinyl chloride. Read More.

Exposure to vinyl chloride increases the risk of cancer and can damage the liver and nervous system. The California public health goal of 0.05 parts per billion, set to protect against cancer, is 40 times lower than the amount allowed by the federal government, which is a Maximum Contaminant Level of 2 parts per billion.

Plastic pipes made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC (CPVC) are widely used for drinking water distribution lines and internal plumbing, raising concern about vinyl chloride contamination of drinking water. A study published in 2011 by Ryan Walter of Cornell University School of Civil and Environmental Engineering suggested that small amounts of vinyl chloride can leach from PVC pipes. Vinyl chloride can also form in the pipes as a result of water disinfection with chlorine.

In an assessment completed in 2000, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment stated that drinking water is not a significant source of exposure to vinyl chloride for the general population.

Click here to read more about carcinogenic VOCs.

 

89

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
2012ND90ND
2013ND310ND
2014ND140ND
2015ND130ND
2016ND100ND
2017ND120ND

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.05 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.05 ppb for vinyl chloride was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against cancer.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 2 ppb

The legal limit for vinyl chloride, established in 1987, was based on analytical detection limits at the time that the standard was set. This limit may not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to vinyl chloride exposure.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-01-30120131-013VOND
2012-04-04120405-006VOND
2012-08-20120821-007VOND
2012-08-20120821-006VOND
2012-08-22120823-008VOND
2012-09-25120926-008VOND
2012-10-15121016-008VOND
2012-10-15121016-007VOND
2012-10-16121017-001VOND
2013-01-22130123-007VOND
2013-01-24130125-003VOND
2013-01-24130125-004VOND
2013-04-18130419-003VOND
2013-04-18130419-002VOND
2013-04-18130419-001VOND
2013-05-29130530-013VOND
2013-06-18130619-009VOND
2013-06-18130619-013VOND
2013-06-18130619-012VOND
2013-06-18130619-011VOND
2013-06-18130619-010VOND
2013-06-18130619-014VOND
2013-06-18130619-020VOND
2013-06-18130619-016VOND
2013-06-18130619-015VOND
2013-06-18130619-021VOND
2013-06-18130619-019VOND
2013-06-18130619-018VOND
2013-06-18130619-017VOND
2013-06-24130626-004VOND
2013-06-25130626-003VOND
2013-06-25130626-002VOND
2013-06-25130626-001VOND
2013-07-18130719-001VOND
2013-07-18130719-009VOND
2013-07-18130719-010VOND
2013-10-21131022-028VOND
2013-10-21131022-027VOND
2013-10-21131022-026VOND
2013-10-21131022-012VOND
2014-01-21140122-024VOND
2014-01-21140122-002VOND
2014-01-21140122-001VOND
2014-04-17140418-003VOND
2014-04-17140418-002VOND
2014-04-17140418-001VOND
2014-06-11140612-009VOND
2014-06-11140612-008VOND
2014-08-13140814-003VOND
2014-08-13140814-004VOND
2014-08-13140814-005VOND
2014-10-15141016-016VOND
2014-10-15141016-015VOND
2014-10-15141016-014VOND
2015-02-24150225-009VOND
2015-02-24150225-010VOND
2015-02-24150225-011VOND
2015-04-23150424-009VOND
2015-04-23150424-008VOND
2015-04-23150424-007VOND
2015-07-01150702-002VOND
2015-07-23150724-005VOND
2015-07-23150724-006VOND
2015-07-23150724-007VOND
2015-10-27151028-010VOND
2015-10-27151028-009VOND
2015-10-27151028-008VOND
2016-02-24160225-002VOND
2016-02-24160225-003VOND
2016-02-24160225-004VOND
2016-05-17160518-026VOND
2016-05-17160518-025VOND
2016-05-17160518-024VOND
2016-07-19160720-001VOND
2016-07-19160720-002VOND
2016-07-19160720-003VOND
2016-12-06161207-003VOND
2017-02-27170228-019VOND
2017-02-27170228-018VOND
2017-02-27170228-020VOND
2017-05-18170519-003VOND
2017-05-18170519-002VOND
2017-05-18170519-001VOND
2017-07-26170727-003VOND
2017-07-26170727-001VOND
2017-07-26170727-002VOND
2017-11-02171103-004VOND
2017-11-02171103-003VOND
2017-11-02171103-002VOND