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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Fluoride

City of Parsons

Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.

 

30

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20120.244 ppm52ND - 0.990 ppm
20130.0340 ppm51ND - 0.170 ppm
20140.112 ppm53ND - 0.210 ppm
20150.0640 ppm52ND - 0.160 ppm
2016ND50ND
2017ND50ND

ppm = parts per million

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

ppm = parts per million

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-01-24572767BTND
2012-04-17577660BTND
2012-05-08578571WSND
2012-07-16581502BT0.230 ppm
2012-10-15586590BT0.990 ppm
2013-01-22589648BTND
2013-05-14596028BTND
2013-05-20596302WSND
2013-09-03602510BT0.170 ppm
2013-10-29605105BTND
2014-01-0728568ND
2014-04-09940090.150 ppm
2014-05-051100080.210 ppm
2014-07-071455880.200 ppm
2014-10-21218265ND
2015-01-202641450.160 ppm
2015-04-063083390.160 ppm
2015-05-11330829ND
2015-07-08363016ND
2015-10-12422036ND
2016-01-11480972ND
2016-04-12526494ND
2016-05-03537431ND
2016-07-05573949ND
2016-10-06639148ND
2017-01-03680282ND
2017-04-03733921ND
2017-05-09758908ND
2017-07-10794067ND
2017-10-04852580ND