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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Vinyl chloride

City of Nampa

Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen used for production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. Discharges from plastics manufacturing can contaminate drinking water with vinyl chloride. Read More.

Exposure to vinyl chloride increases the risk of cancer and can damage the liver and nervous system. The California public health goal of 0.05 parts per billion, set to protect against cancer, is 40 times lower than the amount allowed by the federal government, which is a Maximum Contaminant Level of 2 parts per billion.

Plastic pipes made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC (CPVC) are widely used for drinking water distribution lines and internal plumbing, raising concern about vinyl chloride contamination of drinking water. A study published in 2011 by Ryan Walter of Cornell University School of Civil and Environmental Engineering suggested that small amounts of vinyl chloride can leach from PVC pipes. Vinyl chloride can also form in the pipes as a result of water disinfection with chlorine.

In an assessment completed in 2000, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment stated that drinking water is not a significant source of exposure to vinyl chloride for the general population.

Click here to read more about carcinogenic VOCs.

 

24

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
2012ND10ND
2013ND50ND
2014N/A00N/A
2015N/A00N/A
2016ND130ND
2017ND50ND

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.05 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.05 ppb for vinyl chloride was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against cancer.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 2 ppb

The legal limit for vinyl chloride, established in 1987, was based on analytical detection limits at the time that the standard was set. This limit may not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to vinyl chloride exposure.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-02-29V58591ND
2013-12-04V1351135ND
2013-12-05V1351273ND
2013-12-12V1352283ND
2013-12-19V1353252ND
2013-12-19V1353246ND
2016-04-20V1616221ND
2016-07-20V1632285ND
2016-10-07V1646180ND
2016-11-17V1652977ND
2016-11-17V1652982ND
2016-11-17V1652993ND
2016-11-17V1652971ND
2016-11-17V1652973ND
2016-11-17V1652975ND
2016-11-17V1652985ND
2016-11-17V1652987ND
2016-11-17V1652991ND
2016-11-17V1652995ND
2017-01-31V1703805ND
2017-01-31V1703804ND
2017-04-11V1714411ND
2017-08-09V1735777ND
2017-10-18V1748770ND