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EWG's Tap Water Database

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Fluoride

Dalton Utilities

Fluoride occurs naturally in surface and groundwater and is also added to drinking water by many water systems. Read More.

Fluoride has been promoted as a chemical that reduces dental cavities. Yet it is now well-established that fluoride primarily exerts its protective effects through topical mechanisms, such as sodium fluoride in toothpaste and mouthwash. In contrast, long-term ingestion of fluoride in water increases dental fluorosis, which includes mottling, pitting and weakening of the teeth. EPA's maximum legal limit is set at 4 parts per million (ppm) to prevent skeletal fluorosis, a condition where bones become brittle and more susceptible to fractures, although these effects may occur at lower doses.

Even fluoride levels of 0.7 ppm, the amount of fluoride in drinking water recommended by the U.S. Public Health Service, can result in too much fluoride for bottle-fed babies. EWG recommends that caregivers mix baby formula with fluoride-free water. The National Toxicology Program is investigating the potential for low doses of fluoride to alter thyroid function and childhood brain development.

 

14

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20100.593 ppm330.500 ppm - 0.660 ppm
20110.650 ppm220.570 ppm - 0.730 ppm
20120.665 ppm220.580 ppm - 0.750 ppm
20130.760 ppm220.700 ppm - 0.820 ppm
20140.800 ppm220.600 ppm - 1.000 ppm
20150.707 ppm330.680 ppm - 0.750 ppm

ppm = parts per million.

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 4 ppm

The enforceable federal standard that defines the highest level of a contaminant allowed in drinking water.

ppm = parts per million.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level Goal (MCLG)4 ppm

A non-enforceable federal health guideline. For cancer-causing chemicals, these health goals are typically set to zero.

ppm = parts per million.

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2010-01-21AG807280.620 ppm
2010-01-25AG807670.660 ppm
2010-01-25AG807660.500 ppm
2011-04-04AH265130.570 ppm
2011-04-04AH265120.730 ppm
2012-05-07AH583270.580 ppm
2012-05-07AH583260.750 ppm
2013-03-26AH926790.700 ppm
2013-03-26AH926780.820 ppm
2014-02-24AI284750.600 ppm
2014-02-24AI284741.000 ppm
2015-01-27AI634810.750 ppm
2015-01-27AI634800.690 ppm
2015-03-09AI685080.680 ppm