Menu

EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

Donate

Vinyl chloride

Smyrna Water Department

Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen used for production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. Discharges from plastics manufacturing can contaminate drinking water with vinyl chloride. Read More.

Exposure to vinyl chloride increases the risk of cancer and can damage the liver and nervous system. The California public health goal of 0.05 parts per billion, set to protect against cancer, is 40 times lower than the amount allowed by the federal government, which is a Maximum Contaminant Level of 2 parts per billion.

Plastic pipes made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC (CPVC) are widely used for drinking water distribution lines and internal plumbing, raising concern about vinyl chloride contamination of drinking water. A study published in 2011 by Ryan Walter of Cornell University School of Civil and Environmental Engineering suggested that small amounts of vinyl chloride can leach from PVC pipes. Vinyl chloride can also form in the pipes as a result of water disinfection with chlorine.

In an assessment completed in 2000, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment stated that drinking water is not a significant source of exposure to vinyl chloride for the general population.

Click here to read more about carcinogenic VOCs.

 

61

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
2012N/A00N/A
2013ND30ND
2014ND70ND
2015ND160ND
2016ND190ND
2017ND160ND

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.05 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.05 ppb for vinyl chloride was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against cancer.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 2 ppb

The legal limit for vinyl chloride, established in 1987, was based on analytical detection limits at the time that the standard was set. This limit may not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to vinyl chloride exposure.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2013-11-20S505052ND
2013-11-20S505051ND
2013-11-20S536645ND
2014-08-27S575447ND
2014-08-27S575446ND
2014-08-27S575442ND
2014-12-04S590000ND
2014-12-04S589999ND
2014-12-04S590001ND
2014-12-04S590002ND
2015-03-31S614668ND
2015-03-31S614667ND
2015-03-31S614666ND
2015-03-31S614665ND
2015-06-30S637161ND
2015-06-30S637158ND
2015-06-30S637159ND
2015-06-30S637160ND
2015-09-30S637282ND
2015-09-30S637281ND
2015-09-30S637280ND
2015-09-30S637279ND
2015-12-21S628966ND
2015-12-21S628967ND
2015-12-21S628968ND
2015-12-21S628969ND
2016-03-31S677079ND
2016-03-31S677078ND
2016-03-31S677077ND
2016-03-31S677076ND
2016-06-29S679276ND
2016-06-29S679275ND
2016-06-29S679274ND
2016-06-29S679273ND
2016-09-29S694841ND
2016-09-29S694840ND
2016-09-29S694839ND
2016-09-29S694838ND
2016-10-11S719480ND
2016-10-11S719481ND
2016-10-11S719482ND
2016-12-14S719729ND
2016-12-14S719728ND
2016-12-14S719727ND
2016-12-14S719726ND
2017-03-30S6720621ND
2017-03-30S720620ND
2017-03-30S720622ND
2017-03-30S720623ND
2017-06-28S738586ND
2017-06-28S738585ND
2017-06-28S738584ND
2017-06-28S738583ND
2017-09-27S760209ND
2017-09-27S760211ND
2017-09-27S760213ND
2017-09-27S760215ND
2017-12-19S782078ND
2017-12-19S782076ND
2017-12-19S782074ND
2017-12-19S782072ND