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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2021 UPDATE

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Haloacetic acids (HAA5)

Golden State Water Company - Apple Vly North

Haloacetic acids are formed when disinfectants such as chlorine are added to tap water. The group of five haloacetic acids regulated by federal standards includes monochloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, monobromoacetic acid and dibromoacetic acid. Read More.

Haloacetic acids are harmful during pregnancy and may increase the risk of cancer. Haloacetic acids are genotoxic, which means that they induce mutations and DNA damage. Multiple studies by the National Toxicology Program have demonstrated the cancer-causing properties of individual haloacetic acids in laboratory animals. The Department of Health and Human Services is currently considering listing di- or tri-haloacetic acids for possible inclusion in its comprehensive Report on Carcinogens.

Click here to read more about disinfection byproducts.

 

12

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
2014ND20ND
2015ND20ND
2016ND20ND
2017ND20ND
2018ND20ND
2019ND20ND

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.1 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.1 ppb for the group of five haloacetic acids, or HAA5, was defined in a peer-reviewed scientific study by EWG and represents a one-in-a-million lifetime cancer risk level. This health guideline protects against cancer.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 60 ppb

The legal limit for the group of five haloacetic acids (HAA5), established in 1998, was based on the need for residual disinfectant levels in water served to customers and the cost of treatment. This limit does not fully protect against the risk of cancer and harm to the developing fetus due to exposure to haloacetic acids.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2014-02-182706-601-1115ND
2014-02-182706-602-1200ND
2015-02-042706-601-1140ND
2015-02-042706-602-1200ND
2016-02-022706-601-1200ND
2016-02-022706-602-1215ND
2017-02-069590-601-0930ND
2017-02-069590-602-0945ND
2018-02-209590-601-0935ND
2018-02-209590-602-1000ND
2019-02-119590-601-1025ND
2019-02-119590-602-1010ND