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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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1,4-Dioxane

California Water Service (CWS) - Salinas

1,4-Dioxane is a solvent classified by the EPA as a likely human carcinogen. It contaminates groundwater in many states due to industrial wastewater discharges, plastic manufacturing runoff and landfill runoff. Read More.

Animal studies show that 1,4-dioxane can target the liver, kidneys and respiratory system, and that prenatal exposure can harm the developing fetus. The State of California has set a Public Heatlh Goal of no more than 1 part per billion of 1,4-dioxane in drinking water. The state of Massachusetts sets a legal limit of 0.3 ppb, and New Hampshire's limit is 3 parts per billion. There is no national drinking water standard for this contaminant.

Click here to read more about 1,4-dioxane.

 

62

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

26

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20121.18 ppb43ND - 1.70 ppb
20131.80 ppb441.20 ppb - 3.00 ppb
20140.264 ppb4111ND - 1.80 ppb
20150.775 ppb42ND - 1.60 ppb
20161.48 ppb441.10 ppb - 1.80 ppb
20171.02 ppb54ND - 1.50 ppb

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.35 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.35 ppb for 1,4-dioxane was defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as a one-in-a-million lifetime risk of cancer. Values greater than one-in-a-million cancer risk level can result in increased cancer cases above one in a million people.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-01-189590-019-1129ND
2012-04-109590-019-10201.50 ppb
2012-07-259590-019-09521.70 ppb
2012-10-049590-019-11301.50 ppb
2013-01-089590-019-11453.00 ppb
2013-04-049590-019-13011.20 ppb
2013-07-119590-019-14391.40 ppb
2013-10-109590-019-13451.60 ppb
2014-01-159590-019-13281.50 ppb
2014-04-02201404030347AM0.890 ppb
2014-04-02201404030382AMND
2014-04-03201404040296AM0.140 ppb
2014-04-08201404090687AM0.590 ppb
2014-04-09201404120177AMND
2014-04-09201404100825AMND
2014-04-09201404100794AMND
2014-04-10201404120075AMND
2014-04-10201404120137AMND
2014-04-10201404150246AMND
2014-04-10201404120139AMND
2014-04-10201404120155AMND
2014-04-169590-019-14371.10 ppb
2014-04-17201404190063AMND
2014-04-17201404190054AMND
2014-04-22201404230389AMND
2014-04-24201404250180AMND
2014-04-29201404300780AMND
2014-05-29201405300257AMND
2014-07-169590-019-11501.80 ppb
2014-09-09201409100992AMND
2014-09-09201409100972AMND
2014-09-10201409110695AMND
2014-09-10201409110897AM0.790 ppb
2014-09-11201409120748AM0.380 ppb
2014-09-11201409120732AM0.230 ppb
2014-09-15201409160391AMND
2014-09-16201409170650AMND
2014-09-16201409180651AM1.70 ppb
2014-09-16201409170676AMND
2014-09-16201409170786AMND
2014-09-17201409180668AMND
2014-09-18201409190382AMND
2014-09-18201409190386AMND
2014-09-19201409230182AMND
2014-09-25201409260434AMND
2014-09-25201409260405AMND
2014-09-25201409260416AMND
2014-09-25201409260425AMND
2014-10-149590-019-10281.70 ppb
2015-01-129590-019-1245ND
2015-04-149590-019-0930ND
2015-07-229590-019-11371.50 ppb
2015-10-209590-019-12001.60 ppb
2016-01-059590-019-09521.30 ppb
2016-04-059590-019-11161.10 ppb
2016-08-309590-019-10241.80 ppb
2016-10-049590-019-11081.70 ppb
2017-01-109590-019-13561.20 ppb
2017-03-029590-132-1110ND
2017-04-119590-019-09191.000 ppb
2017-07-129590-019-13281.50 ppb
2017-10-189590-019-09251.40 ppb