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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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1,4-Dioxane

Pico WD

1,4-Dioxane is a solvent classified by the EPA as a likely human carcinogen. It contaminates groundwater in many states due to industrial wastewater discharges, plastic manufacturing runoff and landfill runoff. Read More.

Animal studies show that 1,4-dioxane can target the liver, kidneys and respiratory system, and that prenatal exposure can harm the developing fetus. The State of California has set a Public Heatlh Goal of no more than 1 part per billion of 1,4-dioxane in drinking water. The state of Massachusetts sets a legal limit of 0.3 ppb, and New Hampshire's limit is 3 parts per billion. There is no national drinking water standard for this contaminant.

Click here to read more about 1,4-dioxane.

 

28

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

15

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
20121.60 ppb221.40 ppb - 1.80 ppb
2013N/A00N/A
2014N/A00N/A
20150.512 ppb96ND - 1.20 ppb
20160.511 ppb94ND - 1.40 ppb
20170.500 ppb84ND - 1.000 ppb

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.35 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.35 ppb for 1,4-dioxane was defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as a one-in-a-million lifetime risk of cancer. Values greater than one-in-a-million cancer risk level can result in increased cancer cases above one in a million people.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-05-249588-006-10051.80 ppb
2012-08-179588-006-09141.40 ppb
2015-03-265C26043-07A0.720 ppb
2015-03-265C26043-03A0.760 ppb
2015-03-265C26043-01A0.500 ppb
2015-03-265C26043-05A0.330 ppb
2015-06-229588-006-08471.20 ppb
2015-06-229588-011-08371.10 ppb
2015-09-029588-006-0942ND
2015-09-029588-011-0912ND
2015-12-239588-006-0858ND
2016-03-149588-011-09101.000 ppb
2016-03-239588-006-0816ND
2016-06-209588-011-0810ND
2016-08-179588-006-0815ND
2016-11-219588-006-0846ND
2016-11-229588-011-08001.10 ppb
2016-12-099588-011-13081.10 ppb
2016-12-229588-011-0837ND
2016-12-229588-006-08141.40 ppb
2017-03-209588-011-0835ND
2017-03-209588-006-09201.000 ppb
2017-06-229588-011-0807ND
2017-06-229588-006-0837ND
2017-09-189588-011-0830ND
2017-09-189588-006-09001.000 ppb
2017-12-119588-011-08181.000 ppb
2017-12-119588-006-08331.000 ppb