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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Vinyl chloride

Municipality of Anchorage

Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen used for production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plastics. Discharges from plastics manufacturing can contaminate drinking water with vinyl chloride. Read More.

Exposure to vinyl chloride increases the risk of cancer and can damage the liver and nervous system. The California public health goal of 0.05 parts per billion, set to protect against cancer, is 40 times lower than the amount allowed by the federal government, which is a Maximum Contaminant Level of 2 parts per billion.

Plastic pipes made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC (CPVC) are widely used for drinking water distribution lines and internal plumbing, raising concern about vinyl chloride contamination of drinking water. A study published in 2011 by Ryan Walter of Cornell University School of Civil and Environmental Engineering suggested that small amounts of vinyl chloride can leach from PVC pipes. Vinyl chloride can also form in the pipes as a result of water disinfection with chlorine.

In an assessment completed in 2000, California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment stated that drinking water is not a significant source of exposure to vinyl chloride for the general population.

Click here to read more about carcinogenic VOCs.

 

59

Samples

0

Samples exceeding legal limit (MCL)

0

Samples exceeding
health guidelines

Testing results - average by year

 
YearAverage resultSamples takenDetectionsRange of results
2012ND110ND
2013ND120ND
2014ND20ND
2015ND130ND
2016ND100ND
2017ND110ND

ppb = parts per billion

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.05 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.05 ppb for vinyl chloride was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against cancer.

EPA Maximum Contaminant
Level (MCL) 2 ppb

The legal limit for vinyl chloride, established in 1987, was based on analytical detection limits at the time that the standard was set. This limit may not fully protect against the risk of cancer due to vinyl chloride exposure.

ppb = parts per billion

All test results

Date Lab ID Result
2012-07-19VO*A1207321-01CND
2012-11-28VO*A1211347-01CND
2012-11-28VO*A1211347-02CND
2012-11-28VO*A1211347-03CND
2012-11-28VO*A1211347-04CND
2012-11-28VO*A1211347-05CND
2012-11-28VO*A1211347-06CND
2012-11-28VO*A1211347-07CND
2012-11-28VO*A1211347-08CND
2012-11-28VO*A1211347-09CND
2012-11-28VO*A1211347-10CND
2013-04-04VO*A1304163-01BND
2013-09-24VO*A1309437-01CND
2013-10-25VO*A1310536-02CND
2013-10-25VO*A1310536-05CND
2013-10-25VO*A1310536-04CND
2013-10-25VO*A1310536-03CND
2013-10-25VO*A1310536-01CND
2013-10-31VO*A1310614-01CND
2013-10-31VO*A1310614-02CND
2013-10-31VO*A1310614-03CND
2013-10-31VO*A1310614-04CND
2013-11-08VO*A1311145-01CND
2014-05-13VO*A1405164-01CND
2014-09-09VO*A1409133-01CND
2015-01-12VO*A1501154-01CND
2015-08-18VO*1154627004ND
2015-08-18VO*1154627003ND
2015-08-18VO*1154627001ND
2015-08-18VO*1154626001ND
2015-08-18VO*1154627002ND
2015-08-19VO*1154667001ND
2015-08-20VO*1154709001ND
2015-08-20VO*1154709002ND
2015-08-20VO*1154709003ND
2015-08-20VO*1154709004ND
2015-09-23VO*1155578001ND
2015-10-30VO*1156488001ND
2016-07-13VO*280-85692-1ND
2016-07-13VO*280-85692-2ND
2016-07-13VO*280-85692-4ND
2016-07-18VO*280-85921-1ND
2016-07-18VO*280-85921-2ND
2016-07-19VO*280-85945-1ND
2016-08-02VO*280-86589-1ND
2016-08-02VO*280-86590-1ND
2016-08-29VO*280-87677-1ND
2016-08-29VO*280-87677-3ND
2017-08-21VO*3765073ND
2017-08-21VO*3765106ND
2017-08-21VO*3766066ND
2017-08-21VO*3766073ND
2017-08-28VO*3768874ND
2017-08-28VO*3768882ND
2017-08-28VO*3768898ND
2017-08-28VO*3768906ND
2017-08-29VO*3769507ND
2017-10-02VO*3792416ND
2017-10-31VO*440-195632-1ND