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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)

Status: No national drinking water standard exists

 

Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is a member of a group of perfluorinated chemicals used in many consumer products. PFOA and other perfluorinated chemicals can cause serious health effects, including cancer, endocrine disruption, accelerated puberty, liver and immune system damage, and thyroid changes. These chemicals are persistent in the environment and they accumulate in people. Click here to read more about perfluorinated chemicals.

2012-2017:

FOUND
FOUND ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES

29

states detected

256

utilities detected

8.1 million

people served

29

states over health guideline

240

utilities over health guideline

7.7 million

people served over health guideline

Health concerns for PFOA

Cancer

Harm to the immune system

Hormone disruption

Harm to fetal growth and child development

Harm to the liver

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 1 ppt

The EWG Health Guideline of 1 ppt for PFOA was defined by EWG based on studies by Phillipe Grandjean of Harvard University and many other independent researchers who found reduced effectiveness of vaccines and adverse impacts on mammary gland development from exposure to PFOA and PFOS, the two PFAS most widely detected in drinking water. This health guideline applies to the entire class of PFAS detected in water.

ppt = parts per trillion

States reporting PFOA in drinking water

UTILITIES REPORTING ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES UTILITIES WITH CONTAMINATION
State UtilitiesPeople Served UtilitiesPeople Served
New Jersey251,620,414241,620,206
California221,558,124221,558,124
Kentucky3773,2573773,257
Delaware2398,3102398,310
Florida4386,1004386,100
Alabama28391,14627383,274
New York14199,60927313,497
North Carolina27281,49625299,219
Wisconsin131,5006269,797
Pennsylvania15258,61415258,614
Arizona5238,8175238,817
Massachusetts9189,2569189,256
Tennessee3175,9273175,927
Minnesota5153,4125153,412
Illinois18153,01218153,012
Georgia7142,5747142,574
Maryland4116,5384116,538
Alaska7115,0497115,049
New Hampshire1188,98213105,820
Ohio484,927484,927
Rhode Island762,018762,018
Washington360,471360,471
Colorado359,000359,000
West Virginia348,176348,176
Virginia347,863347,863
Michigan140,891140,891
South Carolina232,521232,521
Oklahoma220,403220,403
Texas216,730216,730
MORE
LESS

Filtering technologies that reduce PFOA

carbon filter icon

Activated Carbon

reverse osmosis icon

Reverse Osmosis

Utilities with the highest amounts of PFOA, 2012-2017

ALL UTILITIES
LARGE UTILITIES
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Devens Massdevelopment*Devens, MA9 of 918,333.3 ppt6,500
Ayer DPW Water DivisionAyer, MA6 of 612,666.7 ppt7,427
Hudson Water SupplyHudson, MA3 of 73,441.4 ppt18,954
Mashpee Water District*Mashpee, MA3 of 173,294.1 ppt34,257
Middleton Water DepartmentMiddleton, MA4 of 101,884.7 ppt6,138
Danvers Water Department*Middleton, MA4 of 101,884.7 ppt35,480
Hyannis Water SystemHyannis, MA7 of 201,866.1 ppt35,000
Pawling Water District #1Pawling, NY12 of 16660.2 ppt100
Pawling Village*Pawling, NY12 of 16660.2 ppt2,200
Millerton VillageMillerton, NY4 of 4529.2 ppt2,000
Hoosick FallsHoosick Falls, NY3 of 12148.2 ppt4,925
Oakdale*Oakdale, MN98 of 146132.7 ppt27,378
City of Vienna*Vienna, WV6 of 695.0 ppt12,507
Central Boaz PsdClifton, WV6 of 695.0 ppt1,418
Rome*Rome, GA4 of 455.0 ppt45,586
Security Waster DistrictColorado Springs, CO34 of 3847.1 ppt19,000
Parkersburg Water DepartmentPalestine, WV3 of 341.2 ppt34,251
Petersburgh Water DistrictPetersburgh, NY11 of 2936.6 ppt240
South Orange Water DepartmentSouth Orange, NJ3 of 733.7 ppt16,964
Sierra Army DepotHerlong, CA2 of 633.0 ppt1,500
Warminster Municipal Authority*Warminster, PA13 of 3831.0 ppt40,000
Oatman Water CompanyScottsdale, AZ2 of 231.0 ppt129
Gadsden Water Works and Sewer Board*Gadsden, AL4 of 430.0 ppt44,637
Highland Water AuthorityGadsden, AL4 of 430.0 ppt5,271
Whorton Bend Water and Fire Pro AuthorityGadsden, AL4 of 430.0 ppt1,890
Northeast Etowah County Water Co-opGadsden, AL4 of 430.0 ppt4,176
Rainbow City Utilities Board*Rainbow City, AL4 of 430.0 ppt11,748
Horsham Water&sewer Authority*Horsham, PA179 of 39529.4 ppt25,000
City of FountainFountain, CO9 of 1226.7 ppt21,000
Montclair Water Bureau*Montclair, NJ6 of 1025.9 ppt37,669
Glen Ridge Water DepartmentGlen Ridge, NJ6 of 1025.9 ppt7,681
United Water RahwayHighland Lakes, NJ4 of 425.8 ppt27,300
Trinity Water Works SystemTrinity, AL1 of 425.0 ppt2,475
West Morgan-East Lawrence Water Authority*Decatur, AL1 of 425.0 ppt26,130
Town Creek Water SystemTown Creek, AL1 of 425.0 ppt1,635
Merrimack Village District*Merrimack, NH233 of 24024.3 ppt25,000
Cabot PreserveMerrimack, NH233 of 24024.3 ppt955
Saint Paul ParkSt. Paul Park, MN3 of 621.0 ppt5,419
Suez Water Delaware*Wilmington, DE2 of 419.1 ppt97,310
Stonetown Council Road Mobile Home Park LLCOklahoma City, OK2 of 418.5 ppt96
Bethany*Bethany, OK2 of 418.5 ppt20,307
Widefield WSD*Colorado Springs, CO9 of 1718.1 ppt19,000
Yorba Linda Water DistrictYorba Linda, CA14 of 1817.7 ppt77,513
CumberlandCumberland, RI7 of 1316.7 ppt22,864
Calhoun*Calhoun, GA5 of 816.3 ppt49,088
V.A.W. Water System, Inc*Vinemont, AL3 of 816.3 ppt29,985
Addison Water Works*Addison, AL3 of 816.3 ppt2,544
Talking Rock Creek PropertiesChatsworth, GA5 of 816.3 ppt270
Artesian Water Company*Newark, DE10 of 3915.6 ppt301,000
Southside Water Works*Southside, AL4 of 815.0 ppt10,998

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
Hudson Water SupplyHudson, MA3 of 73,441.4 ppt18,954
Mashpee Water District*Mashpee, MA3 of 173,294.1 ppt34,257
Danvers Water Department*Middleton, MA4 of 101,884.7 ppt35,480
Hyannis Water SystemHyannis, MA7 of 201,866.1 ppt35,000
Oakdale*Oakdale, MN98 of 146132.7 ppt27,378
City of Vienna*Vienna, WV6 of 695.0 ppt12,507
Rome*Rome, GA4 of 455.0 ppt45,586
Security Waster DistrictColorado Springs, CO34 of 3847.1 ppt19,000
Parkersburg Water DepartmentPalestine, WV3 of 341.2 ppt34,251
South Orange Water DepartmentSouth Orange, NJ3 of 733.7 ppt16,964
Warminster Municipal Authority*Warminster, PA13 of 3831.0 ppt40,000
Gadsden Water Works and Sewer Board*Gadsden, AL4 of 430.0 ppt44,637
Rainbow City Utilities Board*Rainbow City, AL4 of 430.0 ppt11,748
Horsham Water&sewer Authority*Horsham, PA179 of 39529.4 ppt25,000
City of FountainFountain, CO9 of 1226.7 ppt21,000
Montclair Water Bureau*Montclair, NJ6 of 1025.9 ppt37,669
United Water RahwayHighland Lakes, NJ4 of 425.8 ppt27,300
West Morgan-East Lawrence Water Authority*Decatur, AL1 of 425.0 ppt26,130
Merrimack Village District*Merrimack, NH233 of 24024.3 ppt25,000
Suez Water Delaware*Wilmington, DE2 of 419.1 ppt97,310
Bethany*Bethany, OK2 of 418.5 ppt20,307
Widefield WSD*Colorado Springs, CO9 of 1718.1 ppt19,000
Yorba Linda Water DistrictYorba Linda, CA14 of 1817.7 ppt77,513
CumberlandCumberland, RI7 of 1316.7 ppt22,864
V.A.W. Water System, Inc*Vinemont, AL3 of 816.3 ppt29,985
Calhoun*Calhoun, GA5 of 816.3 ppt49,088
Artesian Water Company*Newark, DE10 of 3915.6 ppt301,000
Southside Water Works*Southside, AL4 of 815.0 ppt10,998
Orange Water DepartmentOrange, NJ1 of 314.7 ppt30,134
Garfield Water DepartmentGarfield, NJ4 of 814.1 ppt30,487
NJ American Water - Raritan*Shamong, NJ16 of 3613.9 ppt615,430
Fair Lawn Water DepartmentFair Lawn Boro, NJ8 of 1613.8 ppt31,000
Dover Water DepartmentDover, NH2 of 612.6 ppt28,000
City of Dunn*Erwin, NC2 of 412.5 ppt11,747
Atlantic City Municipal Utilities AuthorityAtlantic City, NJ2 of 712.0 ppt152,415
Galesburg*Galesburg, IL1 of 211.7 ppt33,706
Fort Drum*Fort Drum, NY2 of 611.7 ppt34,400
Gallia CCounty o Rural Water Association*Gallipolis, OH1 of 210.2 ppt20,546
Bloomington*Bloomington, IL1 of 410.00 ppt75,975
Harnett County Department of Public Utilities*Lillington, NC2 of 410.00 ppt90,004
Town of Holly SpringsHolly Springs, NC2 of 410.00 ppt26,000
Warrington Twp Water&sew DeptWarrington, PA3 of 179.85 ppt18,400
City of Corona*Corona, CA15 of 619.82 ppt155,896
Ridgewood WaterRidgewood, NJ21 of 529.23 ppt61,700
Elsinore Valley Municipal Water District*Lake Elsinore, CA4 of 178.94 ppt142,264
FreeportFreeport, IL2 of 78.78 ppt26,443
Hawthorne Water Department*Hawthorne Boro, NJ3 of 88.50 ppt21,006
Liberty Water Lpsco*Avondale, AZ2 of 128.33 ppt45,298
Middlesex Water Company*Iselin, NJ3 of 108.02 ppt233,376
Highland Park W DepartmentHighland Park, NJ3 of 108.02 ppt14,000

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.