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1,4-Dioxane

Status: No national drinking water standard exists

 

1,4-Dioxane is a solvent classified by the EPA as a likely human carcinogen. It contaminates groundwater in many states due to industrial wastewater discharges, plastic manufacturing runoff and landfill runoff. Read More.

Animal studies show that 1,4-dioxane can target the liver, kidneys and respiratory system, and that prenatal exposure can harm the developing fetus. The State of California has set a Public Heatlh Goal of no more than 1 part per billion of 1,4-dioxane in drinking water. The state of Massachusetts sets a legal limit of 0.3 ppb, and New Hampshire's limit is 3 parts per billion. There is no national drinking water standard for this contaminant.

Click here to read more about 1,4-dioxane.

2010-2015:

FOUND
FOUND ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES

45

states detected

2,227

utilities detected

88 million

people served

27

states over health guideline

274

utilities over health guideline

7.4 million

people served over health guideline

Health concerns for 1,4-dioxane

Cancer

Irritation of the lungs

Harm to the kidney

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

Health Guideline 0.35 ppb

The health guideline of 0.35 ppb for 1,4-dioxane was defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as a one-in-a-million lifetime risk of cancer. Values greater than one-in-a-million cancer risk level can result in increased cancer cases above one in a million people.

ppb = parts per billion.

States reporting 1,4-dioxane in drinking water

UTILITIES REPORTING ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES UTILITIES WITH CONTAMINATION
State UtilitiesPeople Served UtilitiesPeople Served
California482,544,05920017,744,976
New York20699,1507612,563,559
Texas001736,575,405
Florida217,862945,871,209
Pennsylvania662,8481165,295,771
New Jersey12264,4581195,037,887
Ohio11961,0351353,649,526
Arizona00702,783,589
Illinois19370,0161432,542,270
Alabama14155,1421172,399,190
Indiana578,477742,283,072
North Carolina871,214,4641712,214,023
South Carolina9144,3091152,021,013
Tennessee10125,119511,927,914
Kentucky125651,749,247
Missouri00141,631,667
Georgia221,840691,373,622
Massachusetts124,777591,259,831
Louisiana00251,259,474
New Mexico0022924,949
Iowa411,51167710,070
Minnesota122,12327706,359
Colorado483,01820673,295
Connecticut356,71111648,502
Michigan355,01720636,470
Wisconsin111,49015554,362
Washington0014479,437
Delaware2307,0008465,310
Nevada005407,962
Virginia0011331,852
Idaho005319,280
West Virginia395,01330282,160
Hawaii004173,056
Nebraska226,99710163,024
Rhode Island114,5008147,470
Maryland13,5007127,643
Oregon003123,766
Oklahoma001789,879
Mississippi00361,547
Utah00251,693
New Hampshire2650850,608
Kansas00433,806
Montana00332,695
Arkansas00829,293
Vermont00914,335
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Utilities with the highest amounts of 1,4-dioxane, 2010-2015

ALL UTILITIES
LARGE UTILITIES
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
City of Sanford*Sanford, NC4 of 45.83 ppb41,483
Tract 180 Mutual Water CompanyCudahy, CA22 of 234.90 ppb14,000
California Water Service Company - East Los AngelesSan Jose, CA196 of 2463.83 ppb150,446
Green Hills Mobile Home ParkBarrington, NH1 of 13.80 ppb50
Fayetteville Public Works Commission*Fayetteville, NC7 of 83.77 ppb211,997
Harnett County Department of Public Utilities*Lillington, NC4 of 43.55 ppb90,004
Mesa Water DistrictCosta Mesa, CA94 of 1233.29 ppb108,000
Town of Holly SpringsHolly Springs, NC4 of 43.28 ppb26,000
Old North Utilities Services/Ft. BraggFort Bragg, NC4 of 43.20 ppb65,000
Bellflower - Somerset MWC*Bellflower, CA112 of 1193.19 ppb46,000
New BrightonNew Brighton, MN8 of 102.99 ppb22,123
Maywood Mutual Water Company #3Maywood, CA16 of 182.98 ppb9,500
City of Dunn*Erwin, NC4 of 42.95 ppb11,747
Bethpage WDBethpage, NY10 of 102.93 ppb33,000
Hicksville WDHicksville, NY15 of 172.81 ppb47,810
Lynwood Park Mutual Water CompanyCompton, CA43 of 442.80 ppb2,300
United Water CamdenCamden, NJ2 of 22.70 ppb46,585
Liberty Utilities - Bellflower - NorwalkDowney, CA44 of 512.67 ppb72,884
Beaver Falls Municipal Authority*Beaver Falls, PA4 of 42.66 ppb50,000
Tract 349 Mutual Water Co.Cudahy, CA26 of 312.58 ppb7,500
Pender County UtilitiesBurgaw, NC4 of 42.41 ppb15,138
Bellflower Municipal Water SystemBellflower, CA7 of 72.39 ppb5,967
Norwalk Water DepartmentNorwalk, CA34 of 482.37 ppb18,372
Aqua NJ - Eastern DivisionHamilton, NJ2 of 42.32 ppb12,000
Liberty Park Water AssociationHuntington Beach, CA24 of 302.22 ppb64
Brunswick Regional Water and Sewer H2go*Leland, NC4 of 42.21 ppb20,663
Gswc - HollydaleRancho Cordova, CA2 of 22.20 ppb7,661
N Walpole Village District/lowBellows Falls, NH3 of 32.14 ppb600
HempsteadHempstead, NY2 of 42.13 ppb56,000
Lynwood Water DepartmentLynwood, CA53 of 572.12 ppb71,297

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report 1,4-Dioxane, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

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UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
City of Sanford*Sanford, NC4 of 45.83 ppb41,483
Tract 180 Mutual Water CompanyCudahy, CA22 of 234.90 ppb14,000
California Water Service Company - East Los AngelesSan Jose, CA196 of 2463.83 ppb150,446
Fayetteville Public Works Commission*Fayetteville, NC7 of 83.77 ppb211,997
Harnett County Department of Public Utilities*Lillington, NC4 of 43.55 ppb90,004
Mesa Water DistrictCosta Mesa, CA94 of 1233.29 ppb108,000
Town of Holly SpringsHolly Springs, NC4 of 43.28 ppb26,000
Old North Utilities Services/Ft. BraggFort Bragg, NC4 of 43.20 ppb65,000
Bellflower - Somerset MWC*Bellflower, CA112 of 1193.19 ppb46,000
New BrightonNew Brighton, MN8 of 102.99 ppb22,123
City of Dunn*Erwin, NC4 of 42.95 ppb11,747
Bethpage WDBethpage, NY10 of 102.93 ppb33,000
Hicksville WDHicksville, NY15 of 172.81 ppb47,810
United Water CamdenCamden, NJ2 of 22.70 ppb46,585
Liberty Utilities - Bellflower - NorwalkDowney, CA44 of 512.67 ppb72,884
Beaver Falls Municipal Authority*Beaver Falls, PA4 of 42.66 ppb50,000
Pender County UtilitiesBurgaw, NC4 of 42.41 ppb15,138
Norwalk Water DepartmentNorwalk, CA34 of 482.37 ppb18,372
Aqua NJ - Eastern DivisionHamilton, NJ2 of 42.32 ppb12,000
Brunswick Regional Water and Sewer H2go*Leland, NC4 of 42.21 ppb20,663
HempsteadHempstead, NY2 of 42.13 ppb56,000
Lynwood Water DepartmentLynwood, CA53 of 572.12 ppb71,297
Merchantville PennsaukenCamden City, NJ14 of 142.03 ppb47,144
Brunswick County Water System*Leland, NC4 of 62.02 ppb77,891
Plainview WDPlainview, NY13 of 131.98 ppb35,000
Town of Fuquay-Varina*Fuquay-varina, NC7 of 81.92 ppb21,241
Golden State Water Company (GSWC) - ArtesiaRancho Cordova, CA10 of 171.82 ppb47,978
Endicott Municipal Water WorksEndicott, NY4 of 41.78 ppb45,000
Collingswood Water DeparCollingswood, NJ4 of 41.78 ppb20,002
Golden State Water Company (GSWC) - NorwalkRancho Cordova, CA17 of 271.59 ppb44,466

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report 1,4-Dioxane, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

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