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EWG's Tap Water Database — 2019 UPDATE

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1,4-Dioxane

Status: No national drinking water standard exists

 

1,4-Dioxane is a solvent classified by the EPA as a likely human carcinogen. It contaminates groundwater in many states due to industrial wastewater discharges, plastic manufacturing runoff and landfill runoff. Read More.

Animal studies show that 1,4-dioxane can target the liver, kidneys and respiratory system, and that prenatal exposure can harm the developing fetus. The State of California has set a Public Heatlh Goal of no more than 1 part per billion of 1,4-dioxane in drinking water. The state of Massachusetts sets a legal limit of 0.3 ppb, and New Hampshire's limit is 3 parts per billion. There is no national drinking water standard for this contaminant.

Click here to read more about 1,4-dioxane.

2012-2017:

FOUND
FOUND ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES

45

states detected

1,955

utilities detected

88 million

people served

26

states over health guideline

287

utilities over health guideline

8.3 million

people served over health guideline

Health concerns for 1,4-dioxane

Cancer

Irritation of the lungs

Harm to the kidney

State and national drinking water standards and health guidelines

EWG Health Guideline 0.35 ppb

The EWG Health Guideline of 0.35 ppb for 1,4-dioxane was defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as a one-in-a-million lifetime risk of cancer. Values greater than one-in-a-million cancer risk level can result in increased cancer cases above one in a million people.

ppb = parts per billion

States reporting 1,4-dioxane in drinking water

UTILITIES REPORTING ABOVE HEALTH GUIDELINES UTILITIES WITH CONTAMINATION
State UtilitiesPeople Served UtilitiesPeople Served
California512,802,47419017,720,771
New York20722,8407612,542,907
Texas001256,545,902
Florida117,589886,076,445
Pennsylvania662,8481075,246,719
New Jersey191,004,5491134,969,739
Ohio8945,6661203,576,640
Arizona00362,789,106
Illinois22364,1701302,490,199
Indiana578,810722,327,327
Alabama12137,715882,235,243
North Carolina931,207,9541482,115,933
South Carolina9144,5941112,100,367
Tennessee10121,591422,010,090
Kentucky125551,698,391
Missouri00171,629,202
Georgia114,043511,380,838
Massachusetts325,910581,262,289
Louisiana00221,220,380
New Mexico0015921,097
Iowa49,27250680,646
Minnesota230,34922675,786
Colorado382,79315660,069
Connecticut356,71111648,502
Michigan355,01718626,013
Wisconsin111,74515553,820
Washington008468,551
Delaware2307,0007466,468
Nevada004403,932
Idaho005334,497
Virginia0012330,233
Rhode Island119,35425328,485
West Virginia495,45730278,220
Hawaii004173,056
Nebraska228,3909166,035
Maryland005125,743
Oregon003123,766
Oklahoma001389,920
Mississippi00362,417
Utah00356,800
New Hampshire1600850,723
Kansas00433,806
Montana00232,205
Arkansas00627,982
Vermont00914,335
MORE
LESS

Filtering technologies that reduce 1,4-dioxane

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Reverse Osmosis

Utilities with the highest amounts of 1,4-dioxane, 2012-2017

ALL UTILITIES
LARGE UTILITIES
UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
City of Sanford*Sanford, NC4 of 45.83 ppb41,483
Chatham Co-asburyPittsboro, NC4 of 45.83 ppb1,033
Carolina Trace Water SystemSanford, NC4 of 45.83 ppb4,089
Broadway, Town ofBroadway, NC4 of 45.83 ppb1,654
Goldston-Gulf Sanitary DistrictGoldston, NC4 of 45.83 ppb1,150
Hicksville WDHicksville, NY19 of 215.24 ppb48,000
Tract 180 Mutual Water CompanyCudahy, CA37 of 384.90 ppb14,000
Goleta Water DistrictGoleta, CA18 of 444.85 ppb86,946
California Water Service Company - East Los AngelesSan Jose, CA181 of 2073.95 ppb150,446
Hoke County Regional--rockfishRaeford, NC7 of 83.77 ppb6,358
Whispering Pine VillageFayetteville, NC7 of 83.77 ppb463
Kelly Hill S/dFayetteville, NC7 of 83.77 ppb95
Rain Tree II Fayetteville Public Works CommissionFayetteville, NC7 of 83.77 ppb268
Fayetteville Public Works Commission*Fayetteville, NC7 of 83.77 ppb211,997
Stedman, Town of*Stedman, NC7 of 83.77 ppb1,485
Brettonwood Hills S/dFayetteville, NC7 of 83.77 ppb178
Brookwood South/fayetteville Public Works CommissionFayetteville, NC7 of 83.77 ppb2,312
Tanglewood South Mobile Home Park/fayetteville Public Works CommissionFayetteville, NC7 of 83.77 ppb267
Eastgate S/d Fayetteville Public Works CommissionFayetteville, NC7 of 83.77 ppb295
Bragg Communities/nta-, NC4 of 43.55 ppb3,625
Linden, Town ofLinden Street, NC4 of 43.55 ppb1,973
Woodlake Water & Sewer Inc.Vass, NC4 of 43.55 ppb1,945
Lillington Water SystemLillington, NC4 of 43.55 ppb4,043
Lillington Water System - VandercroftLillington, NC4 of 43.55 ppb718
Harnett County Department of Public Utilities*Lillington, NC4 of 43.55 ppb90,004
Coats, Town ofCoats, NC4 of 43.55 ppb2,246
East Moore Water District*Carthage, NC4 of 43.55 ppb5,200
Woodland Run Mobile Home S/dFayetteville, NC4 of 43.55 ppb108
Lillington Water System-riverbluffLillington, NC4 of 43.55 ppb93
Moore County Public Utilities-hidden Lakes S/dCarthage, NC4 of 43.55 ppb165
Angier, Town ofAngier, NC4 of 43.55 ppb6,802
Graystone S/dFuquay-varina, NC4 of 43.55 ppb38
Maywood Mutual Water Company #3Maywood, CA23 of 253.28 ppb9,500
Town of Holly SpringsHolly Springs, NC4 of 43.28 ppb26,000
Bellflower - Somerset MWC*Bellflower, CA153 of 1583.27 ppb46,000
Bellflower Home Gardens Water CompanyBellflower, CA153 of 1583.27 ppb1,129
Old North Utilities Services/Ft. BraggFort Bragg, NC4 of 43.20 ppb65,000
Lynwood Park Mutual Water CompanyCompton, CA65 of 653.09 ppb2,300
United Water CamdenCamden, NJ15 of 163.04 ppb46,585
New BrightonNew Brighton, MN8 of 102.99 ppb22,123
Falcon Water System*Falcon, NC4 of 42.95 ppb714
Eastover Sanitary DistrictEastover, NC4 of 42.95 ppb5,630
Sampson Co. Water District Ii - PlainviewClinton, NC4 of 42.95 ppb2,786
City of Dunn*Erwin, NC4 of 42.95 ppb11,747
Bethpage WDBethpage, NY10 of 102.93 ppb33,000
Zelienople BoroughZelienople, PA4 of 42.66 ppb4,123
Borough of ConwayConway, PA4 of 42.66 ppb2,290
Beaver Falls Municipal Authority*Beaver Falls, PA4 of 42.66 ppb50,000
Norwalk Water DepartmentNorwalk, CA48 of 612.60 ppb18,372
Liberty Utilities - Bellflower - NorwalkDowney, CA46 of 512.59 ppb72,884

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report 1,4-Dioxane, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.

UtilityLocationTestsAverage levelPeople served
City of Sanford*Sanford, NC4 of 45.83 ppb41,483
Hicksville WDHicksville, NY19 of 215.24 ppb48,000
Tract 180 Mutual Water CompanyCudahy, CA37 of 384.90 ppb14,000
Goleta Water DistrictGoleta, CA18 of 444.85 ppb86,946
California Water Service Company - East Los AngelesSan Jose, CA181 of 2073.95 ppb150,446
Fayetteville Public Works Commission*Fayetteville, NC7 of 83.77 ppb211,997
Harnett County Department of Public Utilities*Lillington, NC4 of 43.55 ppb90,004
Town of Holly SpringsHolly Springs, NC4 of 43.28 ppb26,000
Bellflower - Somerset MWC*Bellflower, CA153 of 1583.27 ppb46,000
Old North Utilities Services/Ft. BraggFort Bragg, NC4 of 43.20 ppb65,000
United Water CamdenCamden, NJ15 of 163.04 ppb46,585
New BrightonNew Brighton, MN8 of 102.99 ppb22,123
City of Dunn*Erwin, NC4 of 42.95 ppb11,747
Bethpage WDBethpage, NY10 of 102.93 ppb33,000
Beaver Falls Municipal Authority*Beaver Falls, PA4 of 42.66 ppb50,000
Norwalk Water DepartmentNorwalk, CA48 of 612.60 ppb18,372
Liberty Utilities - Bellflower - NorwalkDowney, CA46 of 512.59 ppb72,884
Mesa Water DistrictCosta Mesa, CA94 of 1322.48 ppb108,000
Pender County UtilitiesBurgaw, NC4 of 42.41 ppb15,138
Lynwood Water DepartmentLynwood, CA65 of 672.39 ppb71,297
Merchantville PennsaukenPennsauken, NJ106 of 1062.24 ppb47,144
Brunswick Regional Water and Sewer H2goLeland, NC4 of 42.21 ppb20,663
Aqua NJ - Eastern DivisionHamilton, NJ8 of 102.18 ppb12,000
HempsteadHempstead, NY2 of 42.13 ppb56,000
Brunswick County Water System*Leland, NC4 of 62.02 ppb77,891
NJ American Water - Washington/OxfordCherry Hill, NJ29 of 421.98 ppb10,499
Golden State Water Company (GSWC) - NorwalkRancho Cordova, CA25 of 341.98 ppb44,466
Plainview WDPlainview, NY13 of 131.98 ppb35,000
Town of Fuquay-Varina*Fuquay-varina, NC7 of 81.92 ppb21,241
Collingswood Water DeparCollingswood, NJ39 of 391.86 ppb21,000
Golden State Water Company (GSWC) - ArtesiaRancho Cordova, CA8 of 141.80 ppb47,978
Endicott Municipal Water WorksEndicott, NY4 of 41.78 ppb45,000
Lakewood Water Department*Lakewood, CA39 of 501.75 ppb59,081
Huntington Park Water DepartmentHuntington Park, CA34 of 361.75 ppb17,209
City of Fountain ValleyFountain Valley, CA96 of 1251.67 ppb56,464
Downey Water DepartmentDowney, CA9 of 91.64 ppb111,930
Park WC - LynwoodDowney, CA16 of 211.58 ppb24,791
South Gate Water DepartmentSouth Gate, CA91 of 1141.53 ppb96,057
Garden CityGarden City, NY11 of 111.52 ppb46,000
Paramount Water DepartmentParamount, CA24 of 331.46 ppb55,051
Cape Fear Public Utility Authority - WilmingtonWilmington, NC3 of 41.40 ppb128,800
Gloucester City W DepartmentGloucester City, NJ22 of 221.38 ppb12,460
Pico Rivera Water DepartmentPico Rivera, CA33 of 331.34 ppb39,000
Water Authority of Western NassauFloral Park, NY6 of 91.28 ppb120,000
West Morgan-East Lawrence Water Authority*Decatur, AL3 of 41.27 ppb26,130
Town of Hempstead Water DepartmentEast Meadow, NY26 of 301.26 ppb110,000
IL American - Peoria*Creve Coeur, IL6 of 101.18 ppb136,000
Compton Water DepartmentCompton, CA39 of 571.16 ppb81,963
Irvine Ranch Water District*Irvine, CA144 of 5161.13 ppb370,000
Town of Oak IslandOak Island, NC1 of 11.10 ppb20,523

* This water utility supplies finished drinking water to at least one other water utility. The purchasing utility is not required to test for or report 1,4-Dioxane, but it likely has the contaminant in its water supply.