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AAD (American Academy of Dermatology). Position Statement on Vitamin D. Approved by the board of directors, November 1, 2008; Amended by the board of directors, June 19, 2009. Available at

AAP (American Academy of Pediatrics). Healthy Children. Safety & Prevention: Sun Safety. 2008. Available at

ACS (American Cancer Society). Key Statistics for Basal and Squamous Cell Skin Cancers. 2017. Available at

J.S. Adams and M. Hewison. Update in Vitamin D. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 2010, 95(2):471-478.

AMA (American Medical Association). Report 4 of the Council on Science and Public Health (A-09): Appropriate Supplementation of Vitamin D, Resolution 425, A-08, Reference Committee D. 2009.

D. Andrews, Ph.D., et al., Laboratory testing of sunscreens on the US market finds lower in vitro SPF values than on labels and even less UVA protection. Photodermatology Photoimmunology and Photomedicine, 2021. .

D. Andrews, Ph.D, and Eliza Butterfield, Why Is Cancer-Causing Benzene Widespread in Personal Care Products? Environmental Working Group. 2022. Available at

M. Amarelo, Study: Toxic ‘Forever Chemicals’ Widespread across Many Cosmetics Categories. Environmental Working Group. 2021. Available at

Antaria, United States Patent Application Publication, US 2010/0310871. Mesoporous Zinc Oxide Powder and Method for Production Thereof. 2010.

Antaria, Review of ZinClear-IM Product Range in Line with the European Union Cosmetic Products Regulation (EC 1223/2009). 2012. Available at

J. Ashby et al., Lack of Binding to Isolated Estrogen or Androgen Receptors, and Inactivity in the Immature Rat Uterotrophic Assay, of the Ultraviolet Sunscreen Filters Tinosorb M-Active and Tinosorb S. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology, 2001, 34(3):287-291.

P. Autier et al., Melanoma and Use of Sunscreens: An EORTC Case-Control Study in Germany, Belgium and France. The EORTC Melanoma Cooperative Group. International Journal of Cancer, 1995, 61:749-755.

P. Autier and J.F. Dore, Influence of Sun Exposures During Childhood and During Adulthood on Melanoma Risk. EPIMEL and EORTC Melanoma Cooperative Group. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer. International Journal of Cancer, 1998, 77:533-537.

P. Autier et al., Sunscreen Use and Duration of Sun Exposure: A Double-Blind, Randomized Trial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 1999, 91(15):1304-1309.

P. Autier et al., Sunscreen Use and Intentional Exposure to Ultraviolet A and B Radiation: A Double Blind Randomized Trial Using Personal Dosimeters. British Journal of Cancer, 2000, 83(9):1243-1248.

P. Autier, Sunscreen Abuse for Intentional Sun Exposure. British Journal of Dermatology, 2009, 161 Suppl. 3:40-45.

P. Autier et al., Epidemiological Evidence that UVA Radiation is Involved in the Genesis of Cutaneous Melanoma. Current Opinion in Oncology, 2011 (2):189-196. DOI: 10.1097/CCO.0b013e3283436e5d.

P.J. Barker and A. Branch, The Interaction of Modern Sunscreen Formulations with Surface Coatings. Progress in Organic Coatings, 2008, 62(3):313-320.

BASF, Z-Cote Microfine Zinc Oxide. 2000. Available at

BASF, Technical Information: Uvinul, T-Lite and Z-COTE Grades. 2006.

BASF, Z-COTE Grades – Statement on Particle Size Distribution and Safety. 2010.

BASF, Sunscreen Simulator: An efficient Tool to Predict UVB and UVA Protection. 2013. Available at

A. Beeby and A.E. Jones, The Photophysical Properties of Menthyl Anthranilate: A UV-A Sunscreen. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 2000, 72(1):10-15.

H. Beitner et al., Malignant Melanoma: Aetiological Importance of Individual Pigmentation and Sun Exposure. British Journal of Dermatology, 1990, 122(1):43-51.

F. Benech-Kieffer et al., Percutaneous Absorption of Sunscreens In Vitro: Interspecies Comparison, Skin Models and Reproducibility Aspects. Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, 2000, 13(6):324-335.

F. Benech-Kieffer et al., Percutaneous Absorption of Mexoryl SX in Human Volunteers: Comparison with In Vitro Data. Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, 2003, 16(6):343-355.

C.A. Bonda, The Photostability of Organic Sunscreen Actives: A Review. In Ed. N.A. Shaath, Sunscreens: Regulations and Commercial Development, 3rd edition. Taylor & Francis, 2005.

P.J. Börm et al., The Potential Risks of Nanomaterials: A Review Carried Out for ECETOC. Particle and Fibre Toxicology, 2006, 3:11.

T. Branna, Recent FDA Action Draws Big Crowd in Florida. Happi, Household and Personal Products Industry, 2011. Available at

A.M. Bryden et al., Photopatch Testing of 1155 Patients: Results of the U.K. Multicentre Photopatch Study Group. British Journal of Dermatology, 2006, 155:737–747.

G.M. Buck Louis et al., Urinary Concentrations of Benzophenone-Type Ultraviolet Radiation Filters and Couples’ Fecundity. American Journal of Epidemiology, 2014, 180(2):1168-1175.

H.R. Buser et al., Occurrence of UV Filters 4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor and Octocrylene in Fish from Various Swiss Rivers with Input from Wastewater Treatment Plants. Environmental Science & Technology, 2006, 40(5):1427-1431.

J. Cadet et al., Sensitized Formation of Oxidatively Generated Damage to Cellular DNA by UVA Radiation. Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences, 2009, 8(7):903-911.

A.M. Calafat et al., Concentration of the Sunscreen Agent, Benzophenone-3, in Residents of the United States: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2008, 116(7):893-897.

Health Canada, Sunscreen Monograph Version 2.0. 2013. Available at

A. Cantrell et al., Laser Flash Photolysis Studies of the UVA Sunscreen Mexoryl SX. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 1999, 70:292-297.

CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), Vitamin D Status: United States, 2001-2006. NCHS Data Brief. No. 59, 2011. Available at

CDC, Skin Cancer Trends. 2021. Available at

CDC, Facts About Benzene. 2019. Available at

E.M. Cela et al., Immune System Modulation Produced by Ultraviolet Radiation. Immunoregulatory Aspects of Immunotherapy, 2018, Chapter 5.

E. Chatelain and B. Gabard, Photostabilization of Butyl Methoxydibenzoylmethane (Avobenzone) and Ethylhexyl Methoxycinnamate by bis-Ethylhexyloxyphenol Methoxyphenyl Triazine (Tinosorb S), a New UV Broadband Filter. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 2001, 74(3):401-406.

R. Chowdhury et al., Vitamin D and Risk of Cause Specific Death: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Cohort and Randomised Intervention Studies. BMJ, 2014, 348:g1903.

Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corporation, Time and Extent Application for Bisoctrizole. Prepared to support the inclusion of Bisoctrizole into FDA’s Monograph for Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use. 2005a, 64 FR 27666-27693, as amended by 66 FR 6748567487, Docket No. 78N-0038.

Ciba Specialty Chemicals Corporation, Time and Extent Application for Bemotrizinol. Prepared to support the inclusion of Bemotrizinol into FDA’s Monograph for Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use. 2005b, 64 FR 27666-27693, as amended by 66 FR 6748567487, Docket No. 78N-0038.

CIE (Commission Internationale de l´Eclairage), Erythema Reference Action Spectrum and Standard Erythema Dose. Joint ISO/CIE Standard, 1998, ISO 17166:1999/CIE S 007-1998. Available at

CIR (Cosmetics Ingredient Review), Amended Safety Assessment of Methylisothiazolinone as Used in Cosmetics. Final Amended Report, 2014. Accessed May 2017. Available at

CIR, CIR Findings, Chemicals Unsafe in Cosmetics. 2017. Available at

S.G. Coleho and V.J. Hearing, UVA Tanning is Involved in the Increased Incidence of Skin Cancers in Fair-Skinned Young Women. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research, 2010, 23(1):57-63.

S. Coleho et al., Suboptimal UVA attenuation by broad spectrum sunscreens under outdoor solar conditions contributes to lifetime UVA burden. Photodermatology Photoimmunology & Photomedicine, 2020, 36:42-52.

Colipa, Guidelines: Method for In-Vitro Determination of UVA Protection. Colipa – The European Cosmetics Association, Prepared by the COLIPA In Vitro UV Protection Method Task Force, 2009.

Consumer Reports, CDER Health Hazard Evaluation. 2021. Available at

Consumers Union, Sunscreens: Some Are Short on Protection. Consumer Reports, 2007, 72(7):6.

Cosmetics Europe, Guidelines: Method for In Vitro Determination of UVA Protection. 2011. Available at

Content Lab U.S. Johnson & Johnson Consumer Inc., Issues Voluntary Recall of Specific Neutrogena and Aveeno Aerosol Sunscreen Products Due to the Presence of Benzene. Johnson & Johnson. 2022. Available at

C. Couteau et al., Study of the Persistence of the Anti-Inflammatory Effect Observed After Application of Preparations Containing Organic Ultraviolet Filters. International Journal of Pharmaceutics, 2014, 476(1):160-163.

C. Couteau et al., Influence of Certain Ingredients on the SPF Determined In Vivo. Archives of Dermatological Research, 2012, 304(10):817-821.

M. Crosera et al., Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticle Penetration into the Skin and Effects on HaCaT Cells. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2015, 12(8):9282-97.

E. Damiani et al., UV-Filter Combinations Under UV-A Exposure: Concomitant Quantification of Over-All Spectral Stability and Molecular Integrity. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B, 2007, 87(2):95-104.

E. Damiani et al., Assessment of the Photo-Degradation of UV-Filters and Radical-Induced Peroxidation in Cosmetic Sunscreen Formulations. Free Radical Research, 2010, 44(3):304-312.

R. Danovaro, Sunscreens Cause Coral Bleaching by Promoting Viral Infections. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2008, 116(4):441-447.

A. Deflandre and G. Lang, Photostability Assessment of Sunscreens: Benzylidene Camphor and Dibenzoylmethane Derivatives. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 1988, 10:53-62.

L.K. Dennis et al., Sunscreen Use and the Risk for Melanoma: A Quantitative Review. Annals of Internal Medicine, 2003, 139:966-978.

A. Diaz, The Children and Sunscreen Study. Archives of Dermatology, 2012, E1-E7.

B.L. Diffey, A Method for Broad Spectrum Classification of Sunscreens. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 1994, 16:47-52.

B.L. Diffey, When Should Sunscreen Be Reapplied? Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2001, 45(6):882-885.

B.L. Diffey, Sunscreens as a Preventative Measure in Melanoma: An Evidence-Based Approach or the Precautionary Principle? British Journal of Dermatology, 2009, 161 Suppl. 3:25-27.

B.L. Diffey, The FDA Final Rule on Labeling and Effectiveness Testing of Sunscreens: Too Little, Too Late? Letter to editor. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2012, 66(1):162-63.

B.L. Diffey, New Sunscreens and the Precautionary Principle. JAMA Dermatology, 2015. DOI: 10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.6069.

C. A. Downs et. al, Benzophenone Accumulates Over Time from the Degradation of Octocrylene in Commercial Sunscreen Products. Chemical Research in Toxicology, 2021, DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.0c00461

Z.D. Draelos, Are Sunscreens Safe? Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology, 2010, 9:1-2.

A. Dupuy et al., Randomized Controlled Trial Testing the Impact of High-Protection Sunscreens on Sun-Exposure Behavior. Archives of Dermatology, 2005, 141(8):950-956.

S. Durrer et al., Estrogen Sensitivity of Target Genes and Expression of Nuclear Receptor Co-Regulators in Rat Prostate After Pre- and Postnatal Exposure to the Ultraviolet Filter 4-Methylbenzylidene Camphor. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2007, 115 Suppl. 1, 42-50.

Endocrine Society, Some Sunscreen Ingredients May Disrupt Sperm Cell Function. Press Release, 2016. Available at

European Commission, Recommendation on the Efficacy of Sunscreen Products and the Claims Made Relating Thereto. 2006, OJ L265, 2006 ⁄7647 ⁄EC, 39-43.

European SCCS (Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety), Opinion on ZnO (nano form). European Union, 2012.

European SCCS, Opinion on Vitamin A (Retinol, Retinyl Acetate, Retinyl Palmitate). Adopted Oct. 6, 2016. Available at

EWG, Comments on the Food and Drug Administration’s Proposed Amendment of Final Monograph for Sunscreens Docket: Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Proposed Amendment of Final Monograph. 2007, Docket No. 1978N-0038, RIN: 0910-AF43

EWG, unpublished test results. 2010.

EWG, Comments on the Food and Drug Administration’s Draft Guidance on Nanotechnology. 2011, Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0530. Available at

EWG, EWG’s Skin Deep® cosmetics database. 2021. Available at

FDA (Food and Drug Administration), Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Proposed Amendment of Final Monograph; Proposed Rule. In: 21 CFR Parts 347 and 352. Federal Register: U.S. Food and Drug Administration, 2007. Available at

FDA, About the National Center for Toxicological Research. Biochemical Toxicology, 2009. Available at

FDA, Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use, 76 Fed. Reg. 35,672. 2011a.

FDA Draft, Not for Implementation: Guidance for Industry. Enforcement Policy – OTC Sunscreen Drug Products Marketed Without an Approved Application. 2011b. Available at

FDA, Retinyl Palmitate press statement. 2011c.

FDA, Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Request for Data and Information Regarding Dosage Forms. 2011d, RIN 0910-ZA40, [Docket No FDA-1978-N-0018], 21 CFR Part 352, 4160-01-P.

FDA, Revised Effectiveness Determination; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use. 2011e, RIN 0910-AF43, [Docket No FDA-1978-N-0018], 21 CFR Part 201, 4160-01-P.

FDA, Labeling and Effectiveness Testing; Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use; Delay of Compliance Dates. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012, 4160-01-P. 21 CFR Parts 201 and 310, [Docket No. FDA-1978-N-0018] (formerly Docket No. 1978N-0038), RIN 0910-AF43.

FDA, Sunscreen Innovation Act (SIA). 2014. Available at

FDA, Shedding Some Light on FDA’s Review of Sunscreen Ingredients and the Sunscreen Innovation Act. 2015a. Available at

FDA, FDA Label: Full-Text Search of Product Labeling. 2016. Accessed May 2017. Available at

FDA, Proposed Rule: Sunscreen Drug Products for Over-the-Counter Human Use. 2019 Available at

FDA, FDA Alerts Drug Manufacturers to the Risk of Benzene Contamination in Certain Drugs. 2021. Available at

FDA, Prohibited & Restricted Ingredients in Cosmetics. 2022. Available at

FDA, Shedding More Light on Sunscreen Absorption. 2022. Available at

FDA, Coppertone Issues Voluntary Nationwide Recall of Specific Lots of Pure & Simple SPF 50 Spray (2021 Launch), Sport Mineral SPF 50 Spray (2021 Launch), and Travel-Size Coppertone Sport Spray SPF 50 (1.6 oz) Aerosols Sunscreen Sprays Due to the Presence of Benzene. 2021. Available at

L. Ferrero et al., Efficiency of a Continuous Height Distribution Model of Sunscreen Film Geometry to Predict a Realistic Sun Protection Factor. Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2003, 54:463-481.

S. Field and J.A. Newton-Bishop, Melanoma and Vitamin D. Molecular Oncology, 2011(2):197-214.

S. Field et al., Vitamin D and Melanoma. Dermato-endocrinology, 2013, 5(1):121-129.

J.E. Fielding and S.M. Teutsch, Skin Cancer Prevention: Sunnyside Up or Scrambled? Editorial. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 2010, 102(7):445-447. Available at

M.S. Fisher and M.L. Kripke, Systemic alteration induced in mice by ultraviolet light irradiation and its relationship to ultraviolet carcinogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. 1977, 74(4) 1688-1692.

Forbes News, CVS Halts Sales of Two Sun-Care Products Following J&J Sunscreen Recall. 2022. Available at

N.M. Franklin et al., 2007. Comparative Toxicity of Nanoparticulate ZnO, bulk ZnO, and ZnCl2 to a Freshwater Microalga (Pseudokirchneriella Subcapitata): The Importance of Particle Solubility. Environmental Science and Technology, 41(24): 8484-8490.

Friends of the Earth, Nanotechnology and Sunscreens: A Consumer Guide for Avoiding Nano-Sunscreens. 2009. Available at

Friends of the Earth, Sunscreen Scandal Questions and Answers. 2012. Accessed April 2013. Available at

Future Markets Inc., The World Market for Nanoparticle Titanium Dioxide. 2011. Available at

A.O. Gamer et al., The In Vitro Absorption of Microfine Zinc Oxide and Titanium Dioxide Through Porcine Skin. Toxicology In Vitro, 2006, 20(3):301-307.

C.F. Garland et al., Epidemiologic Evidence for Different Roles of Ultraviolet A and B Radiation in Melanoma Mortality Rates. Annals of Epidemiology, 2003, 13(6):395-404.

F. Gasparro, Sunscreen Photobiology: Molecular, Cellular, and Physiological Aspects. Springer, 1997.

E. Gilbert et al., Commonly Used UV Filter Toxicity on Biological Functions: Review of Last Decade Studies. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2013. DOI: 10.1111/ics.12030.

German BfR, Vitamin A: Intake via Cosmetic Products Should Be Restricted. Bundesinstitu für Risikobewertung, 2014. Available at

M. Ghazipura et al., Exposure to benzophenone-3 and reproductive toxicity: A systematic review of human and animal studies. Reproductive Toxicology, 2017, 73:175-183.

D.L. Giokas et al., UV Filters: From Sunscreens to Human Body and the Environment. Trends in Analytical Chemistry, 2007, 26(5):360-374.

P.A. Gimotty and K. Glanz, Sunscreen and Melanoma: What is the Evidence? Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2011, 29(3):249-250.

A.A. Ginde et al., Association Between Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Level and Upper Respiratory Tract Infection in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Archives of Internal Medicine, 2009, 169(4):384-390.

D.E. Godar et al., Increased UVA Exposures and Decreased Cutaneous Vitamin D(3) Levels May Be Responsible for the Increasing Incidence of Melanoma. Medical Hypotheses, 2009, 72(4):434-443.

D.E. Godar, Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma. Journal of Skin Cancer, 2011. DOI: 10.1155/2011/858425 Available at

H.G. Gonzalez et al., Percutaneous Absorption of Benzophenone-3, a Common Component of Topical Sunscreens. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, 2002, 27(8):691-694.

H. Gonzalez, Percutaneous Absorption of the Sunscreen Benzophenone-3 After Repeated Whole-Body Applications, With and Without Ultraviolet Irradiation. British Journal of Dermatology, 2006, 154(2):337-340.

L.G. Gordon et al., Regular Sunscreen Use is a Cost-Effective Approach to Skin Cancer Prevention in Subtropical Settings. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 2009, 129(12):2766-2771.

E.D. Gorham et al., Do Sunscreens Increase Risk of Melanoma in Populations Residing at Higher Latitudes? Annals of Epidemiology, 2007, 17(12):956-963.

A. Green et al., Daily Sunscreen Application and Betacarotene Supplementation in Prevention of Basal-Cell and Squamous-Cell Carcinomas of the Skin: A Randomised Controlled Trial. Lancet, 1999, 354(9180):723-729.

A.C. Green et al., Reduced Melanoma After Regular Sunscreen Use: Randomized Trial Follow-Up. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 2011, 29(3):257-263.

T. Grosick and P. Tanner, Efficacy As Used, Not As Tested, Is True Measure of Sunscreen Performance. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 2004, 50:P31.

A.C. de-Groot and D.W. Roberts, Contact and Photocontact Allergy to Octocrylene: A Review. Contact Dermatitis, 2014, 70(14):193-204.

B. Gulson et al., Comparison of Dermal Absorption of Zinc from Different Sunscreen Formulations and Differing UV Exposure Based on Stable Isotope Tracing. 2012, 420:313-318. Available at

G.P. Guy Jr. et al., Prevalence and Costs of Skin Cancer Treatment in the U.S., 2002-2006 and 2007-2011. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 2015, 48(2):183-187.

C. Han et al., Ten-Year Trends in Urinary Concentrations of Triclosan and Benzophenone-3 in the General U.S. Population from 2003 to 2012. Environmental Pollution, 2016, 208, Part B:803-810.

K.M. Hanson et al., Sunscreen Enhancement of UV-Induced Reactive Oxygen Species in the Skin. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 2006, 41(8):1205-1212.

K.G. Harley et al., Reducing Phthalate, Paraben, and Phenol Exposure from Personal Care Products in Adolescent Girls: Findings from the HERMOSA Intervention Study. Environmental Health Perspectives, 2016. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.1510514

C.G.J. Hayden et al., Sunscreen Penetration of Human Skin and Related Keratinocyte Toxicity After Topical Application. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 2005, 18(4):170-174.

R. Haywood et al., Sunscreens Inadequately Protect Against Ultraviolet-A-Induced Free Radicals in Skin: Implications for Skin Aging and Melanoma? Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 2003, 121(4):862-868.

R. Haywood et al., Measuring Sunscreen Protection Against Solar-Simulated Radiation-Induced Structural Radical Damage to Skin Using ESR/Spine Trapping: Development of an Ex Vivo Test Method. Free Radical Research, 2012, 46(3):265-275. DOI: 10.3109/10715762.2011.651719

B. Herzog et al., In Vivo and In Vitro Assessment of UVA Protection by Sunscreen Formulations Containing Either Butyl Methoxy Dibenzoyl Methane, Methylene Bis-Benzotriazolyl Tetramethybutylphenol, or Microfine Zno. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2002, 24:170-185.

B. Herzog, Prediction of Sun Protection Factors by Calculation of Transmissions with a Calibrated Step Film Model. Journal of Cosmetic Science, 2002, 53(1):11-26.

B. Herzog, Prediction of Sun Protection Factors and UV-A Parameters. In Ed. N.A. Shaath, Sunscreens: Regulations and Commercial Development. Taylor and Francis Group, 2005, 954.

B. Herzog et al., Photostability of UV Absorber Systems in Sunscreens. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 2009, 85:869-878.

Z. Huang et al., Toxicological Effect of ZnO Nanoparticles Based on Bacteria. Langmuir, 2008, 24(8):4140-4144.

D.J. Hunter et al., Risk Factors for Basal Cell Carcinoma in a Prospective Cohort of Women. Annals of Epidemiology, 1990, 1(1):13-23.

IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). IARC Handbooks of Cancer Prevention, Vol. 5, Sunscreens. IARC Press, 2001a.

IARC, IARC Summary Recommendations for Public Health Action. 2001b. Available at

IARC, Monograph No. 2, Titanium Dioxide (Group 2B): International Agency for Research on Cancer. 2006. Available at

IARC, Sunbeds and UV Radiation. Press release, 2009. Available at

IARC, Monograph on Benzene. 2022. Available at

International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements For Pharmaceuticals For Human Use, Impurities: Guideline for Residual Solvents Q3C(R6). 2016. Available at

IBISWorld. Sunscreen Manufacturing in the U.S.: Market Research Report. 2016. Accessed April 2017. Available at

J. Inbaraj et al., Photophysical and Photochemical Studies of 2-Phenylbenzimadazole and UVB Sunscreen 2-Phenylbenzimidazole-5-Sulfonic Acid. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 2002, 75(2):107-116.

IOM (Institute of Medicine), Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin D and Calcium. 2010. Available at

N.R. Janjua et al., Systemic Absorption of the Sunscreens Benzophenone-3, Octyl-Methoxycinnamate, and 3-(4-methyl-benzylidene) Camphor After Whole-Body Topical Application and Reproductive Hormone Levels in Humans. Journal of Investigative Dermatology, 2004, 123(1):57-61.

N.R. Janjua et al., Sunscreens in Human Plasma and Urine After Repeated Whole-Body Topical Application. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology, 2008, 22(4):456-461.

R. Jiang et al., Absorption of Sunscreens Across Human Skin: An Evaluation of Commercial Products for Children and Adults. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 1999, 48(4):635-637.

S.J. Kang et al., Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Trigger p53-Mediated Damage Response in Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes. Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, 2008, 49(5):399-405.

A. Kariagina et al., Benzophenone-3 promotion of mammary tumorigenesis is diet-dependent. Oncotarget. 2020; 11: 4465-4478.

K. Klein and I. Palefsky, Formulating Sunscreen Products. In Ed. N.A. Shaath, Sunscreens: Regulations and Commercial Development, 3rd edition. Taylor & Francis, 2005.

P. Klinubol et al., Transdermal Penetration of UV Filters. Skin Pharmacology and Physiology, 2008, 21(1):23-29.

I. Klopčič and M. Sollner Dolenc, Endocrine Activity of AVB, 2MR, BHA, and Their Mixtures. Toxicological Sciences, 2017, 156(1): 240-251.

J. Kockler et al., Photostability of Sunscreens. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology C: Photochemistry Reviews, 2012, 13:91-110.

B. Køster et al., Prevalence of Sunburn and Sun-Related Behaviour in the Danish Population: A Cross-Sectional Study. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 2010, 38(5):548-552.

KOBO, Attenuation Grade TiO2 Dispersions. KOBO Products, 2011a. Available at

KOBO, Attenuation Grade ZnO Dispersions. KOBO Products, 2011b. Available at

KOBO, Practical Tools for Boosting Sunscreen Efficacy. In Eds. Yun Shao et al., Sunscreen Symposium 2015. Accessed May 2016. Available at

I.Kohli et al., Greater efficacy of SPF 100+ sunscreen compared to SPF 50+ in sunburn prevention during five consecutive days of sunlight exposure: A Randomized, Double-Blind Clinical Trial. JAAD, 2020, 82(4) 869-877.

M.L. Kripke, Antigenicity of Murine Skin Tumors Induced by Ultraviolet Light. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 1974, 53:1333-1336.

M. Krause et al., Sunscreens: Are They Beneficial for Health? An Overview of Endocrine Disrupting Properties of UV-Filters. International Journal of Andrology, 2012, 35:424-436.

T. Kunisue et al., Urinary Concentrations of Benzophenone-type UV Filters in U.S. Women and Their Association with Endometriosis. Environmental Science and Technology, 2012, 46(8):4624-4632. DOI: 10.1021/es204415a

P.Y. Kunz et al., Assessment of Hormonal Activity of UV Filters in Tadpoles of Frog Xenopus Laevis at Environmental Concentrations. Marine Environmental Research, 2004, 58:431-435.

P.Y. Kunz et al., Comparison of In Vitro and In Vivo Estrogenic Activity of UV Filters in Fish. Toxicological Sciences, 2006, 90(2):349-361.

S. Lautenschlager et al., Photoprotection. Lancet, 2007, 370(9586):528-537.

D. Lazovitch et al., Melanoma Risk in Relation to Use of Sunscreen or Other Sun Protection Methods. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 2011, 20:2583-2593. DOI: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-11-0705

Z.A. Lewicka et al., The Structure, Composition, and Dimensions of TiO2 and ZnO Nanomaterials in Commercial Sunscreens. Journal of Nanoparticle Research, 2011, 13:3607-3617.

D. Light et al., Re: Valisure Citizen Petition on Benzene in Sunscreen and After-Sun Care Products. Valisure. 2022. Available at

E. Linos et al., Hat, Shade, Long Sleeves, or Sunscreen? Rethinking U.S. Sun Protection Messages Based on their Relative Effectiveness. Cancer Causes Control, 2011, 22:1067-1071.

A.C. Looker et al., Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Status of the U.S. Population: 1988-1994 Compared with 2000-2004. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2008, 88(6):1519-1527.

G.M. Louis, Urinary Concentrations of Benzophenone-Type Ultraviolet Light Filters and Semen Quality. Fertility and Sterility, 2015, 104(4):989-996.

R.M. Lucas et al., Is the Current Public Health Message on UV Exposure Correct? Bull World Health Organ, 2006, 84(6):485-491.

W.N. Maceachern and O.F. Jillson, A Practical Sunscreen – “Red Vet Pet.” Archives of Dermatology, 1964, 89:147-150.

L. Marrot et al., Importance of UVA Photoprotection As Shown by Genotoxic Related Endpoints: DNA Damage and p53 Status. Mutation Research, 2005, 571:175-184.

M.K. Matta et al., Effect of sunscreen application under maximal use conditions on plasma concentration of sunscreen active ingredients: a randomized clinical trial. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2019;321(21):2082-2091.

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EWG provides information on sunscreen products from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings indicate both efficacy and the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other sunscreens. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Methodology | Privacy Policy | Terms & Conditions

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