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CITRUS LIMON (LEMON) PEEL OIL

Score:

Data: Limited

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (moderate), Persistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (low), Ecotoxicology (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is HIGH

Products with this Ingredient

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moisturizer61 products
shampoo57 products
body wash/cleanser53 products
facial moisturizer/treatment52 products
facial cleanser43 products
antiperspirant/deodorant41 products
liquid hand soap39 products
conditioner36 products
exfoliant/scrub29 products
mask26 products
serums & essences24 products
hair treatment/serum23 products
daily use with SPF23 products
lip balm21 products
lipstick18 products
bath oil/salts/soak18 products
bar soap16 products
toothpaste15 products
hand sanitizer15 products
toners/astringents15 products
mouthwash14 products
body oil13 products
CC cream12 products
recreational sunscreen12 products
lip gloss10 products
hand cream10 products
styling gel/lotion9 products
foundation9 products
hair styling aide8 products
lip balm with SPF7 products
shaving cream6 products
body spray6 products
makeup remover5 products
hair spray5 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)5 products
bubble bath5 products
body firming lotion4 products
setting powder/spray4 products
shaving cream (men's)4 products
foot moisturizer4 products
baby shampoo4 products
anti-aging4 products
fragrance for women4 products
concealer4 products
foot cleansing3 products
beard oil3 products
after shave3 products
around-eye cream3 products
body powder3 products
after sun product3 products
detangler2 products
baby lotion2 products
makeup primer2 products
tooth whitening2 products
fragrance for men2 products
cuticle treatment2 products
vapor rubs2 products
bronzer/highlighter1 products
styling mousse/foam1 products
foot odor control1 products
1 products
baby soap1 products
BB cream1 products
muscle/joint soreness1 products
nail treatment1 products

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
REACH registrations this substance causes skin irritation.European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Lemon, ext.; 1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; 1-methyl-4-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexa-1,4-diene; 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-yl phosphinite; 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylidenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane; (R)-4-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene; -; 1-methyl-4-(pro; cas_numbers: 8008-56-8, 68917-33-9, 84929-31-7

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
The European Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety reports this substance is an established contact allergen in humans.EU Cosmetics Directive
Fragrance chemical, which is less frequently reported and thus less documented as a consumer allergen.European Union 2015. Banned and Restricted Fragrances. Appears as: listid: EUFRAG-046; Chemical_Name: Limonene; Synonyms: d-Limonene;
Human [[system]] toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2018. Safer Chemical Ingredients List (2018-02-28). Appears as: CAS: 5989-27-5; List Name: d-Limonene; TSCA Chemical Name: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-
May cause sensitization by skin contactEU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
REACH registrations this substance may cause an allergic skin reaction.European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Lemon, ext.; 1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; 1-methyl-4-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexa-1,4-diene; 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-yl phosphinite; 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylidenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane; (R)-4-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene; -; 1-methyl-4-(pro; cas_numbers: 8008-56-8, 68917-33-9, 84929-31-7
May cause sensitization by skin contact, with allergic reaction in skin or lungsUS. National Library of Medicine,. 2015. Haz-Map®. Appears as: listid: HMAP-0695-1; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Recommended restricted in cosmetics - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only within recommended use or concentration limitsn)IFRA_Standard_43html
Restricted in cosmetics - labeling requirement for allergensEU Cosmetics Directive 2015. CosIng. Appears as: listid: COSING-27937; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene (CAS No 5989-27-5); ; CAS: 5989-27-5

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concernOSPAR Comission 2015. OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern. Appears as: listid: PBT-OSPAR-249; Chemical_Name: (4R)-CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-; Synonyms: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-; CAS: 5989-27-5
This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. Flagged for suspected aquatic toxicity.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05949; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. Flagged for suspected aquatic toxicity.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05949; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; ; CAS: 5989-27-5

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
REACH registrations this substance may be fatal if swallowed and enters airways.European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Lemon, ext.; 1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; 1-methyl-4-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexa-1,4-diene; 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-yl phosphinite; 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylidenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane; (R)-4-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene; -; 1-methyl-4-(pro; cas_numbers: 8008-56-8, 68917-33-9, 84929-31-7
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
Developmental toxicity (significant increase in the number of fetuses with skeletal abnormalities, including lumbar ribs, fused ribs, and delayed ossification of several bones in the paws) were observed in the animals administered 2363 mg/kg/day.1977 Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer (VII) Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings. Oyo Yakuri 13(6), 863-873.

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Dangerous for the environmentEU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
REACH registrations this substance is toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects.European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Lemon, ext.; 1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; 1-methyl-4-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexa-1,4-diene; 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-yl phosphinite; 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylidenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane; (R)-4-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene; -; 1-methyl-4-(pro; cas_numbers: 8008-56-8, 68917-33-9, 84929-31-7
This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. Flagged for suspected aquatic toxicity.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05949; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

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Concern Reference
FlammableEU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Cancer

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Concern Reference
IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)IARC 2015. IRAC Carcinogens (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: IARC-653; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5

Data Sources

  • EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Lemon, ext.; 1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; 1-methyl-4-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexa-1,4-diene; 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-yl phosphinite; 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylidenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane; (R)-4-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene; -; 1-methyl-4-(pro; cas_numbers: 8008-56-8, 68917-33-9, 84929-31-7
  • EU Cosmetics Directive
  • European Union 2015. Banned and Restricted Fragrances. Appears as: listid: EUFRAG-046; Chemical_Name: Limonene; Synonyms: d-Limonene;
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2018. Safer Chemical Ingredients List (2018-02-28). Appears as: CAS: 5989-27-5; List Name: d-Limonene; TSCA Chemical Name: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-
  • US. National Library of Medicine,. 2015. Haz-Map®. Appears as: listid: HMAP-0695-1; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • IFRA_Standard_43html
  • EU Cosmetics Directive 2015. CosIng. Appears as: listid: COSING-27937; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene (CAS No 5989-27-5); ; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • OSPAR Comission 2015. OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern. Appears as: listid: PBT-OSPAR-249; Chemical_Name: (4R)-CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-; Synonyms: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05949; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • 1977 Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer (VII) Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings. Oyo Yakuri 13(6), 863-873.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • IARC 2015. IRAC Carcinogens (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: IARC-653; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.

ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

ABOUT EWG VERIFIED™

Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer