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d-Limonene

Score:

Data: Limited

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is HIGH

Products with this Ingredient

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hair color and bleaching12 products
facial moisturizer/treatment6 products
facial cleanser5 products
bar soap5 products
conditioner4 products
liquid hand soap3 products
hair styling aide3 products
toners/astringents2 products
lip balm with SPF2 products
detangler2 products
around-eye cream2 products
sunless tanning2 products
beard oil1 products
after shave1 products
body firming lotion1 products
body wash/cleanser1 products
serums & essences1 products
exfoliant/scrub1 products
moisturizer1 products
shampoo1 products
fragrance for women1 products
hair spray1 products
mask1 products
styling gel/lotion1 products

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Known human any toxicant or allergenOpinion on Frangrance allergens in cosmetics (2011), EU Cosmetics Directive
Possible human any toxicant or allergenBanned and Restricted Fragrances, European Union
Human any toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceSafer Chemical Ingredients List (2018-02-28), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Limited evidence of any toxicity or allergiesClassification & Labelling (Skin Deep®), EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
Limited evidence of any toxicity or allergiesHaz-Map®, US. National Library of Medicine,

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Classified as any irritantClassification & Labelling (Skin Deep®), EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concernOSPAR Comission 2015. OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern. Appears as: listid: PBT-OSPAR-249; Chemical_Name: (4R)-CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-; Synonyms: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-; CAS: 5989-27-5
Not suspected to be persistentDomestic Substance List, Environment Canada
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeDomestic Substance List, Environment Canada

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
Developmental toxicity (significant increase in the number of fetuses with skeletal abnormalities, including lumbar ribs, fused ribs, and delayed ossification of several bones in the paws) were observed in the animals administered 2363 mg/kg/day.1977 Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer (VII) Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings. Oyo Yakuri 13(6), 863-873.

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityClassification & Labelling (Skin Deep®), EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
Suspected to be an environmental toxinDomestic Substance List, Environment Canada

Miscellaneous

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Concern Reference
Occupational hazards related to handlingClassification & Labelling (Skin Deep®), EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsIRAC Carcinogens (Skin Deep®), IARC

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodEverything Added to Food, US. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulDomestic Substance List, Environment Canada

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Restricted in cosmetics - labeling requirement for allergensCosIng

Data Sources

  • Opinion on Frangrance allergens in cosmetics (2011), EU Cosmetics Directive
  • Banned and Restricted Fragrances, European Union
  • Safer Chemical Ingredients List (2018-02-28), Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®), EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes
  • Haz-Map®, US. National Library of Medicine,
  • OSPAR Comission 2015. OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern. Appears as: listid: PBT-OSPAR-249; Chemical_Name: (4R)-CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-; Synonyms: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • Domestic Substance List, Environment Canada
  • 1977 Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer (VII) Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings. Oyo Yakuri 13(6), 863-873.
  • IRAC Carcinogens (Skin Deep®), IARC
  • Everything Added to Food, US. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .

ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

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