IMAGE SOURCE: PubChem
Other ConcernsPersistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (high), Ecotoxicology (low), Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (high), and Occupational hazards (high)
Unacceptable: EWG VERIFIED products cannot contain this ingredient
See how this product scores for common concerns.
LOWAllergies & Immunotoxicity
MODERATEDevelopmental and Reproductive Toxicity
- DATA SOURCES
Products with this Ingredient
Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
|Classified as irritant||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Limited evidence of skin irritation||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Known human lung and skin toxicant||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Known human respiratory toxicant||EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants|
|Classified as toxic or harmful||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs|
|Classified as a low human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Cancer - strong evidence||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|Possible human carcinogen||California EPA Proposition 65|
|Possible human carcinogen||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Possible human carcinogen||EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)|
|Possible human carcinogen||NTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition|
|Limited evidence of carcinogenicity||Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens|
|Limited evidence of carcinogenicity||NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens|
|Limited evidence of carcinogenicity||Amer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens|
|Cancer - limited evidence||Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife||Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Occupational hazards related to handling||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|2369 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
- CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
- ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
- NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
- IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
- NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
- ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
- Rudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
- EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.
Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES
The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.
The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.