Find products and ingredients Learn how Skin Deep® works Meet our experts Discover EWG VERIFIED®

Data: Good

Titanium Dioxide (Sunscreen Grade)

  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.

IMAGE SOURCE: PubChem

SEARCH PRODUCTS

Other Concerns

Enhanced skin absorption, Use restrictions (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (low), Occupational hazards (high), and Biochemical or cellular level changes (high)

SYNONYMS

● MICRONIZED TITANIUM DIOXIDE
● MICROTIO2
● NANO TIO2
● NANO TITANIUM DIOXIDE
● TITANIUM DIOXIDE (NANO)
● TITANIUM DIOXIDE (SUNSCREEN GRADE)

Restricted - Unaccpetable

The score of this ingredient can vary from Restricted to Unacceptable based on the method of product consumption. For instance, when used in aerosol-based products, this ingredient may pose a risk to respiratory health, leading to a higher score

Click here for more information about ingredient scores


Titanium dioxide has a long history of use as a sunscreen agent. Nano TiO2 offers greater sun protection than larger titanium particles. Comparatively little is known regarding potential health effects of nanoparticles. They do not penetrate healthy skin, and thus appear to pose a low health risk in lotions. Inhalation of powders and sprays is a concern.

Common concerns

See how this product scores for common concerns.

  • MODERATE
    Cancer
  • LOW
    Allergies & Immunotoxicity
  • LOW
    Developmental and Reproductive Toxicity
  • MODERATE
    Use Restrictions

Ingredient concerns

  • CONCERNS
  • DATA SOURCES

Products with this Ingredient

Expand content Collapse content
foundation443 products
daily use with SPF183 products
recreational sunscreen176 products
eye shadow124 products
lipstick96 products
concealer77 products
BB cream65 products
bronzer/highlighter51 products
bar soap50 products
blush41 products
brow liner36 products
CC cream34 products
baby sunscreen31 products
28 products
lip gloss26 products
lip liner25 products
nail polish24 products
eye liner19 products
lip balm with SPF18 products
lip balm15 products
facial moisturizer/treatment15 products
mascara12 products
around-eye cream9 products
facial powder8 products
exfoliant/scrub8 products
shampoo6 products
moisturizer6 products
serums & essences6 products
makeup primer5 products
toothpaste5 products
mask5 products
setting powder/spray3 products
facial cleanser3 products
body wash/cleanser3 products
bath oil/salts/soak2 products
hair color and bleaching1 products
detangler1 products
shaving cream1 products
eyelash glue1 products
conditioner1 products
other eye makeup1 products
tanning oil1 products
hair treatment/serum1 products
shaving cream (men's)1 products
glitter1 products
hair styling aide1 products
sunless tanning1 products
body cleansing wipes1 products
bubble bath1 products

Enhanced skin absorption

Expand content Collapse content
CONCERN REFERENCE
Nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinNanomaterial Database
Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinNanomaterial Database
Does not cause enhanced penetrationOpen scientific literature

Biochemical or cellular level changes

Expand content Collapse content
CONCERN REFERENCE
Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.Open scientific literature
One or more animal studies show organ changes at moderate doses where the human health implications are not yet well understoodOpen scientific literature

Occupational hazards

Expand content Collapse content
CONCERN REFERENCE
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Use restrictions

Expand content Collapse content
CONCERN REFERENCE
Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - anyOpen scientific literature

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Expand content Collapse content
CONCERN REFERENCE
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as medium human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show respiratory effects at very low dosesOpen scientific literature
One or more animal studies show any effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)Open scientific literature
Associated with respiratory toxicityOpen scientific literature
Associated with any toxicityEPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Cancer

Expand content Collapse content
CONCERN REFERENCE
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityNIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityInt'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Cancer - limited evidenceScorecard.org Toxicity Information
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation resultsOpen scientific literature

Decreased skin absorption

Expand content Collapse content
CONCERN REFERENCE
No absorption into intact skinOpen scientific literature

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

Expand content Collapse content
CONCERN REFERENCE
One or more animal studies show significant but moderate pulmonary irritation at low dosesOpen scientific literature

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Expand content Collapse content
CONCERN REFERENCE
Associated with immunotoxicity or allergiesOpen scientific literature

Ecotoxicology

Expand content Collapse content
CONCERN REFERENCE
Wildlife and environmental toxicityOpen scientific literature
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Informational

Expand content Collapse content
CONCERN REFERENCE
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmeticsFDA Color Additive Status
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationCTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook

Data gaps

Expand content Collapse content
CONCERN REFERENCE
10185 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Expand content Collapse content
CONCERN REFERENCE
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

Expand content Collapse content
CONCERN REFERENCE
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food
  • NanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
  • Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
  • NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
  • IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
  • ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
  • CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

Understanding scores

Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.

Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.

HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES

Hazard score

The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED® mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.

Score legend

Data availability

The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.

NONE LIMITED FAIR GOOD ROBUST
Low Availability
Moderate Availability
High Availability

Can’t find your product?

Enter the ingredients in EWG’s Build Your Own Report tool to get an approximate score for that product.

BUILD YOUR OWN REPORT
Skindeep Healthy Living App

EWG research
on the go

Find personal care, cleaning, and food products on the EWG Healthy Living app.

DOWNLOAD THE APP