Titanium Dioxide (Sunscreen Grade)
- This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
- Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.
Other ConcernsEnhanced skin absorption, Use restrictions (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (low), Occupational hazards (high), and Biochemical or cellular level changes (high)
Restricted - Unaccpetable
The score of this ingredient can vary from Restricted to Unacceptable based on the method of product consumption. For instance, when used in aerosol-based products, this ingredient may pose a risk to respiratory health, leading to a higher score
Click here for more information about ingredient scores
Titanium dioxide has a long history of use as a sunscreen agent. Nano TiO2 offers greater sun protection than larger titanium particles. Comparatively little is known regarding potential health effects of nanoparticles. They do not penetrate healthy skin, and thus appear to pose a low health risk in lotions. Inhalation of powders and sprays is a concern.
See how this product scores for common concerns.
LOWAllergies & Immunotoxicity
LOWDevelopmental and Reproductive Toxicity
- DATA SOURCES
Products with this Ingredient
|daily use with SPF||182 products|
|recreational sunscreen||180 products|
|eye shadow||131 products|
|BB cream||65 products|
|bar soap||44 products|
|brow liner||38 products|
|CC cream||34 products|
|baby sunscreen||30 products|
|lip liner||25 products|
|lip gloss||25 products|
|eye liner||20 products|
|lip balm with SPF||17 products|
|lip balm||16 products|
|facial moisturizer/treatment||14 products|
|lip plumper||13 products|
|nail polish||13 products|
|around-eye cream||10 products|
|facial powder||8 products|
|serums & essences||6 products|
|makeup primer||5 products|
|facial cleanser||4 products|
|body wash/cleanser||3 products|
|setting powder/spray||3 products|
|bath oil/salts/soak||2 products|
|tanning oil||1 products|
|shaving cream (men's)||1 products|
|eyelash glue||1 products|
|other eye makeup||1 products|
|shaving cream||1 products|
|hair treatment/serum||1 products|
|hair color and bleaching||1 products|
|sunless tanning||1 products|
|bubble bath||1 products|
|body cleansing wipes||1 products|
|hair styling aide||1 products|
Enhanced skin absorption
|Nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skin||Nanomaterial Database|
|Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skin||Nanomaterial Database|
|Does not cause enhanced penetration||Open scientific literature|
Biochemical or cellular level changes
|Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.||Open scientific literature|
|One or more animal studies show organ changes at moderate doses where the human health implications are not yet well understood||Open scientific literature|
|Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Restricted in cosmetics (recommendations or requirements) - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - any||Open scientific literature|
|Limited evidence of carcinogenicity||NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens|
|Limited evidence of carcinogenicity||Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens|
|Cancer - limited evidence||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results||Open scientific literature|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|One or more animal studies show respiratory effects at very low doses||Open scientific literature|
|Classified as medium human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|One or more animal studies show any effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||Open scientific literature|
|Associated with respiratory toxicity||Open scientific literature|
|Associated with any toxicity||EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs|
Decreased skin absorption
|No absorption into intact skin||Open scientific literature|
Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
|One or more animal studies show significant but moderate pulmonary irritation at low doses||Open scientific literature|
|Associated with immunotoxicity or allergies||Open scientific literature|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||Open scientific literature|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmetics||FDA Color Additive Status|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration||CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Everything Added to Food|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|10185 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
- NanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
- IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
- ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
- CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.
Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES
The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED® mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.
The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.