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TITANIUM DIOXIDE (sunscreen grade)

Score:

Data: Good

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Enhanced skin absorption, Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (low), Occupational hazards (high), and Biochemical or cellular level changes (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW_MODERATE

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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lipstick560 products
daily use with SPF462 products
eye shadow417 products
bronzer/highlighter224 products
foundation217 products
recreational sunscreen209 products
lip gloss145 products
blush128 products
concealer99 products
BB cream94 products
eye liner74 products
CC cream69 products
facial powder62 products
brow liner58 products
lip liner53 products
baby sunscreen53 products
bath oil/salts/soak38 products
lip balm with SPF38 products
bar soap31 products
serums & essences27 products
lip balm27 products
makeup primer25 products
mascara24 products
other eye makeup18 products
lip plumper16 products
setting powder/spray14 products
body wash/cleanser13 products
anti-aging13 products
12 products
moisturizer11 products
mask10 products
facial moisturizer/treatment10 products
hair color and bleaching9 products
fragrance for women8 products
around-eye cream7 products
nail polish7 products
exfoliant/scrub5 products
facial cleanser3 products
toothpaste3 products
baby lotion2 products
mouthwash1 products
conditioner1 products
shaving cream1 products
hair spray1 products
bubble bath1 products
oil controller1 products
body art1 products
styling gel/lotion1 products
body oil1 products
hair styling aide1 products
glitter1 products
tanning oil1 products

Enhanced skin absorption

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Concern Reference
Nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinNanomaterial Database
Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinNanomaterial Database
No penetration of the outermost layer of skin{Degussa, 1994}

Biochemical or cellular level changes

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Concern Reference
Produces damaging reactive oxygen species upon in vitro{Long, 2006}
Organ system toxicity after dermal exposure for hairless mouseWu J, Liu W, Xue C, Zhou S, Lan F, Bi L, et al 2009. Toxicity and penetration of TiO(2) nanoparticles in hairless mice and porcine skin after subchronic dermal exposure. Toxicol Lett 191(1): 1-8.

Occupational hazards

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Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 47, 93 ;in prep.
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityNIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Cancer - limited evidenceCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment Prioritization Notices. http://www.oehha.org/prop65/CRNR_notices/state_listing/prioritization_notices/index.html. Chemicals on Candidate List for consideration under Proposition 65 due to high carcinogenicity concern (through March 2004). Chemicals under consideration for listing via the authoritative bodies mechanisms (through July 2004).
micronized titanium dixoxide found to mitochondria in human (MSTO-211H) cells{Brunner, 2006}

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as medium human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
NanoTiO2 (19-21 nm size) induced severe pulmonary emphysema in adult male mice.Chen HW, Su SF, Chien CT, Lin WH, Yu SL, Chou CC, et al 2006. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce emphysema-like lung injury in mice. Faseb J 20(13): 2393-2395.
Nanoscale titanium dioxide particles induced cytotoxicity in human lung cell cultures; the most cytotoxic mineral forms of titanium dioxide generated more reactive oxygen species.Sayes CM, Wahi R, Kurian PA, Liu Y, West JL, Ausman KD, et al 2006. Correlating nanoscale titania structure with toxicity: a cytotoxicity and inflammatory response study with human dermal fibroblasts and human lung epithelial cells. Toxicol Sci 92(1): 174-85.
Associated with any toxicityEPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Decreased skin absorption

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Concern Reference
No absorption into skin{Jue-Chen, 1990}

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Mice subacutely exposed to 2-5 nm TiO(2) nanoparticles showed a significant but moderate inflammatory response among animals at week 0, 1, or 2 after exposure that resolved by week 3 postexposure.Grassian VH, O

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
TiO2 induces goblet cell hyperplasia (GCH) and Muc5ac expression, and this process may be associated with increased production of Interleukin-13 by mast cells.Ahn MH, Kang CM, Park CS, Park SJ, Rhim T, Yoon PO, Chang HS, Kim SH, Kyono H, Kim KC 2005. Titanium dioxide particle-induced goblet cell hyperplasia: association with mast cells and IL-13. Respir Res. 2005 Apr 13;6:34

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Nano titanium dioxide and other nanoparticles are generally toxic to aquatic invertebrates at low mg per liter concentrations.Baun A, Hartmann NB, Grieger K, Kusk KO 2008. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing. Ecotoxicology. 2008 Jul;17(5):387-95. Epub 2008 Apr 19.
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationCTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmeticsFDA Color Additive Status

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
10185 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Data Sources

  • NanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
  • {Degussa, 1994}
  • {Long, 2006}
  • Wu J, Liu W, Xue C, Zhou S, Lan F, Bi L, et al 2009. Toxicity and penetration of TiO(2) nanoparticles in hairless mice and porcine skin after subchronic dermal exposure. Toxicol Lett 191(1): 1-8.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 47, 93 ;in prep.
  • NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
  • California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment Prioritization Notices. http://www.oehha.org/prop65/CRNR_notices/state_listing/prioritization_notices/index.html. Chemicals on Candidate List for consideration under Proposition 65 due to high carcinogenicity concern (through March 2004). Chemicals under consideration for listing via the authoritative bodies mechanisms (through July 2004).
  • {Brunner, 2006}
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • Chen HW, Su SF, Chien CT, Lin WH, Yu SL, Chou CC, et al 2006. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce emphysema-like lung injury in mice. Faseb J 20(13): 2393-2395.
  • Sayes CM, Wahi R, Kurian PA, Liu Y, West JL, Ausman KD, et al 2006. Correlating nanoscale titania structure with toxicity: a cytotoxicity and inflammatory response study with human dermal fibroblasts and human lung epithelial cells. Toxicol Sci 92(1): 174-85.
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
  • {Jue-Chen, 1990}
  • Grassian VH, O
  • Ahn MH, Kang CM, Park CS, Park SJ, Rhim T, Yoon PO, Chang HS, Kim SH, Kyono H, Kim KC 2005. Titanium dioxide particle-induced goblet cell hyperplasia: association with mast cells and IL-13. Respir Res. 2005 Apr 13;6:34
  • Baun A, Hartmann NB, Grieger K, Kusk KO 2008. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing. Ecotoxicology. 2008 Jul;17(5):387-95. Epub 2008 Apr 19.
  • CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.

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