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TITANIUM DIOXIDE (sunscreen grade)

Score:

Data: Good

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Enhanced skin absorption, Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (low), Occupational hazards (high), and Biochemical or cellular level changes (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW_MODERATE

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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lipstick521 products
eye shadow383 products
moisturizer with SPF361 products
bronzer/highlighter201 products
beach & sport sunscreen192 products
nail polish147 products
lip gloss126 products
blush115 products
foundation95 products
concealer89 products
eye liner72 products
BB cream69 products
lip liner64 products
brow liner45 products
facial powder37 products
lip balm with SPF36 products
CC cream36 products
bath oil/salts/soak36 products
baby sunscreen31 products
lip balm30 products
serums & essences23 products
bar soap20 products
makeup primer20 products
mascara17 products
facial moisturizer/treatment16 products
other eye makeup16 products
moisturizer11 products
body wash/cleanser10 products
fragrance for women8 products
mask7 products
hair color and bleaching6 products
makeup with SPF5 products
exfoliant/scrub5 products
lip plumper4 products
anti-aging3 products
around-eye cream3 products
toothpaste2 products
facial cleanser2 products
mouthwash1 products
oil controller1 products
conditioner1 products
shaving cream1 products
hair spray1 products
glitter1 products
shampoo1 products
body oil1 products

Enhanced skin absorption

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Concern Reference
Nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinNanomaterial Database
Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinNanomaterial Database
Does not cause enhanced penetration{Degussa, 1994}

Biochemical or cellular level changes

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Concern Reference
Produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signaling, cause mutations, lead to cell death and may be implicated in cardiovascular disease.{Long, 2006}
One or more animal studies show organ changes at moderate doses where the human health implications are not yet well understoodWu J, Liu W, Xue C, Zhou S, Lan F, Bi L, et al 2009. Toxicity and penetration of TiO(2) nanoparticles in hairless mice and porcine skin after subchronic dermal exposure. Toxicol Lett 191(1): 1-8.

Occupational hazards

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Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 47, 93 ;in prep.
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityNIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Cancer - limited evidenceCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment Prioritization Notices. http://www.oehha.org/prop65/CRNR_notices/state_listing/prioritization_notices/index.html. Chemicals on Candidate List for consideration under Proposition 65 due to high carcinogenicity concern (through March 2004). Chemicals under consideration for listing via the authoritative bodies mechanisms (through July 2004).
One or more in vitro tests on mammalian cells show positive mutation results{Brunner, 2006}

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show respiratory effects at very low dosesChen HW, Su SF, Chien CT, Lin WH, Yu SL, Chou CC, et al 2006. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce emphysema-like lung injury in mice. Faseb J 20(13): 2393-2395.
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as medium human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Associated with any toxicityEPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Associated with respiratory toxicitySayes CM, Wahi R, Kurian PA, Liu Y, West JL, Ausman KD, et al 2006. Correlating nanoscale titania structure with toxicity: a cytotoxicity and inflammatory response study with human dermal fibroblasts and human lung epithelial cells. Toxicol Sci 92(1): 174-85.

Decreased skin absorption

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Concern Reference
No absorption into intact skin{Jue-Chen, 1990}

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show significant but moderate pulmonary irritation at low dosesGrassian VH, O

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Associated with immunotoxicity or allergiesAhn MH, Kang CM, Park CS, Park SJ, Rhim T, Yoon PO, Chang HS, Kim SH, Kyono H, Kim KC 2005. Titanium dioxide particle-induced goblet cell hyperplasia: association with mast cells and IL-13. Respir Res. 2005 Apr 13;6:34

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityBaun A, Hartmann NB, Grieger K, Kusk KO 2008. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing. Ecotoxicology. 2008 Jul;17(5):387-95. Epub 2008 Apr 19.
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
10185 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmeticsFDA Color Additive Status
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationCTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • NanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
  • {Degussa, 1994}
  • {Long, 2006}
  • Wu J, Liu W, Xue C, Zhou S, Lan F, Bi L, et al 2009. Toxicity and penetration of TiO(2) nanoparticles in hairless mice and porcine skin after subchronic dermal exposure. Toxicol Lett 191(1): 1-8.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 47, 93 ;in prep.
  • NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
  • California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment Prioritization Notices. http://www.oehha.org/prop65/CRNR_notices/state_listing/prioritization_notices/index.html. Chemicals on Candidate List for consideration under Proposition 65 due to high carcinogenicity concern (through March 2004). Chemicals under consideration for listing via the authoritative bodies mechanisms (through July 2004).
  • {Brunner, 2006}
  • Chen HW, Su SF, Chien CT, Lin WH, Yu SL, Chou CC, et al 2006. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles induce emphysema-like lung injury in mice. Faseb J 20(13): 2393-2395.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
  • Sayes CM, Wahi R, Kurian PA, Liu Y, West JL, Ausman KD, et al 2006. Correlating nanoscale titania structure with toxicity: a cytotoxicity and inflammatory response study with human dermal fibroblasts and human lung epithelial cells. Toxicol Sci 92(1): 174-85.
  • {Jue-Chen, 1990}
  • Grassian VH, O
  • Ahn MH, Kang CM, Park CS, Park SJ, Rhim T, Yoon PO, Chang HS, Kim SH, Kyono H, Kim KC 2005. Titanium dioxide particle-induced goblet cell hyperplasia: association with mast cells and IL-13. Respir Res. 2005 Apr 13;6:34
  • Baun A, Hartmann NB, Grieger K, Kusk KO 2008. Ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to aquatic invertebrates: a brief review and recommendations for future toxicity testing. Ecotoxicology. 2008 Jul;17(5):387-95. Epub 2008 Apr 19.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
  • CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.

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