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CITRUS MEDICA LIMONUM (LEMON) OIL

Score:

Data: Limited

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (moderate), Persistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (low), Ecotoxicology (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is HIGH

Products with this Ingredient

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moisturizer40 products
body wash/cleanser29 products
moisturizer with SPF25 products
facial cleanser22 products
facial moisturizer/treatment21 products
shampoo21 products
exfoliant/scrub20 products
lipstick18 products
lip balm16 products
liquid hand soap16 products
conditioner16 products
bath oil/salts/soak15 products
serums & essences15 products
antiperspirant/deodorant15 products
bar soap13 products
body oil13 products
CC cream11 products
lip gloss10 products
hand sanitizer9 products
toners/astringents9 products
beach & sport sunscreen9 products
toothpaste8 products
hand cream8 products
mask7 products
shaving cream6 products
fragrance for women6 products
body spray4 products
shaving cream (men's)4 products
hair treatment/serum4 products
makeup remover4 products
styling gel/lotion4 products
anti-aging3 products
foot cleansing3 products
foot moisturizer3 products
after shave3 products
mouthwash3 products
beard oil2 products
baby lotion2 products
fragrance for men2 products
baby oil2 products
hair styling aide2 products
body firming lotion2 products
baby shampoo2 products
cuticle treatment2 products
vapor rubs2 products
makeup primer1 products
bubble bath1 products
baby soap1 products
nail treatment1 products
body powder1 products
hair spray1 products
tanning oil1 products
around-eye cream1 products
foot odor control1 products
detangler1 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)1 products
bronzer/highlighter1 products

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
The European Commission's Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety reports this substance is an established contact allergen in humans.EU Cosmetics Directive
Fragrance chemical, which is less frequently reported and thus less documented as a consumer allergen.European Union 2015. Banned and Restricted Fragrances. Appears as: listid: EUFRAG-046; Chemical_Name: Limonene; Synonyms: d-Limonene;
Human [[system]] toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2018. Safer Chemical Ingredients List (2018-02-28). Appears as: CAS: 5989-27-5; List Name: d-Limonene; TSCA Chemical Name: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-
May cause sensitization by skin contactEU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
May cause sensitization by skin contact, with allergic reaction in skin or lungsUS. National Library of Medicine,. 2015. Haz-Map®. Appears as: listid: HMAP-0695-1; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
REACH registrations this substance may cause an allergic skin reaction.European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Lemon, ext.; 1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; 1-methyl-4-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexa-1,4-diene; 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-yl phosphinite; 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylidenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane; (R)-4-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene; -; 1-methyl-4-(pro; cas_numbers: 8008-56-8, 68917-33-9, 84929-31-7

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
REACH registrations this substance causes skin irritation.European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Lemon, ext.; 1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; 1-methyl-4-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexa-1,4-diene; 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-yl phosphinite; 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylidenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane; (R)-4-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene; -; 1-methyl-4-(pro; cas_numbers: 8008-56-8, 68917-33-9, 84929-31-7

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concernOSPAR Comission 2015. OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern. Appears as: listid: PBT-OSPAR-249; Chemical_Name: (4R)-CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-; Synonyms: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-; CAS: 5989-27-5
This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. Flagged for suspected aquatic toxicity.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05949; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. Flagged for suspected aquatic toxicity.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05949; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; ; CAS: 5989-27-5

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Recommended restricted in cosmetics - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only within recommended use or concentration limitsn)IFRA_Standard_43html
Restricted in cosmetics - labeling requirement for allergensEU Cosmetics Directive 2015. CosIng. Appears as: listid: COSING-27937; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene (CAS No 5989-27-5); ; CAS: 5989-27-5

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
REACH registrations this substance may be fatal if swallowed and enters airways.European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Lemon, ext.; 1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; 1-methyl-4-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexa-1,4-diene; 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-yl phosphinite; 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylidenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane; (R)-4-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene; -; 1-methyl-4-(pro; cas_numbers: 8008-56-8, 68917-33-9, 84929-31-7
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
Developmental toxicity (significant increase in the number of fetuses with skeletal abnormalities, including lumbar ribs, fused ribs, and delayed ossification of several bones in the paws) were observed in the animals administered 2363 mg/kg/day.1977 Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer (VII) Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings. Oyo Yakuri 13(6), 863-873.

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Dangerous for the environmentEU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. Flagged for suspected aquatic toxicity.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05949; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
REACH registrations this substance is toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects.European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Lemon, ext.; 1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; 1-methyl-4-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexa-1,4-diene; 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-yl phosphinite; 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylidenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane; (R)-4-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene; -; 1-methyl-4-(pro; cas_numbers: 8008-56-8, 68917-33-9, 84929-31-7
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Miscellaneous

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Concern Reference
FlammableEU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5

Cancer

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Concern Reference
IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)IARC 2015. IRAC Carcinogens (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: IARC-653; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
25 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Data Sources

  • EU Cosmetics Directive
  • European Union 2015. Banned and Restricted Fragrances. Appears as: listid: EUFRAG-046; Chemical_Name: Limonene; Synonyms: d-Limonene;
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2018. Safer Chemical Ingredients List (2018-02-28). Appears as: CAS: 5989-27-5; List Name: d-Limonene; TSCA Chemical Name: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-
  • EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • US. National Library of Medicine,. 2015. Haz-Map®. Appears as: listid: HMAP-0695-1; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Lemon, ext.; 1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; 1-methyl-4-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexa-1,4-diene; 3,7-dimethylocta-1,6-dien-3-yl phosphinite; 6,6-dimethyl-2-methylidenebicyclo[3.1.1]heptane; (R)-4-isopropenyl-1-methylcyclohexene; -; 1-methyl-4-(pro; cas_numbers: 8008-56-8, 68917-33-9, 84929-31-7
  • OSPAR Comission 2015. OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern. Appears as: listid: PBT-OSPAR-249; Chemical_Name: (4R)-CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-; Synonyms: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05949; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • IFRA_Standard_43html
  • EU Cosmetics Directive 2015. CosIng. Appears as: listid: COSING-27937; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene (CAS No 5989-27-5); ; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • 1977 Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer (VII) Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings. Oyo Yakuri 13(6), 863-873.
  • IARC 2015. IRAC Carcinogens (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: IARC-653; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.

ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

ABOUT EWG VERIFIED™

Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer