Menu Close Menu

Menu

PAHS

Score:

Data: Robust

Cancer

Cancer concern is MODERATE

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW_MODERATE

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW_MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

Expand content Collapse content

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humansEU PTBs - PRIO database & Secondary PRIO database
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humansEPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeCanada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeOSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeEmerging PBTs from peer-reviewed literature
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeEPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)

Use restrictions

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmeticsCanada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics Ingredients

Cancer

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Possible human carcinogenCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Possible human carcinogenAmer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Possible human carcinogenEPA (US. Environmental Protection Agency). Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986 guidelines.
Possible human carcinogenWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 32, Suppl. 7, 92 ;in prep.
Possible human carcinogenNTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogenCalifornia EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidenceProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://wwwoehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 32, Suppl. 7, 92 ;in prep.
Cancer - limited evidenceSilent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986 guidelines.
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 32, Suppl. 7, 92 ;in prep.

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicityNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicityJankovic, J A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesnternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180 Principles and Methods for Assessing Direct Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals. World Health Organization. Geneva, 1996. (Table 1: Examples of compounds that are immunotoxic for humans or rodents).

Endocrine disruption

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Limited evidence of endocrine disruptionKeith, LH. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox studyIllinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicityKlaassen, C, M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996.
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox studyNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Ecotoxicology

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicityEPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicityIllinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
Wildlife and environmental toxicityEuropean Union - Water Framework Directive

Data gaps

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Insufficient data to determine safetyEPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986 guidelines.
10573 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Data Sources

  • EU (European Union). 2006. Persistent, bioaccumulative chemicals identified in PRIO database - a tool for risk reduction of chemicals. Secondary PRIO database - a tool for risk reduction of chemicals. Secondary Kemi. Place Published, Kemi-Swedish Chemicals Inspectorate.
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
  • Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
  • OSPAR (Oslo-Paris). 2002. OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR List of Substances of Possible Concern. Secondary OSPAR. Place Published, OSPAR Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environement of North-East Atlanic.
  • Emerging PBTs from peer-reviewed literature
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
  • Health Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
  • CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
  • ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
  • EPA (US. Environmental Protection Agency). Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986 guidelines.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 32, Suppl. 7, 92 ;in prep.
  • NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
  • California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
  • Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://wwwoehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
  • Rudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
  • EPA (US Environmental Protection Agency). Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986 guidelines.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • Jankovic, J A Screening Method for Occupational Reproductive Health Risk. American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 57: 641-649. 1996.
  • nternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180 Principles and Methods for Assessing Direct Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals. World Health Organization. Geneva, 1996. (Table 1: Examples of compounds that are immunotoxic for humans or rodents).
  • Keith, LH. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html
  • Illinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
  • Klaassen, C, M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996.
  • EU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

ABOUT EWG VERIFIED™

Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer