Menu Close Menu

Menu

LEAD

Score:

Data: Robust

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Enhanced skin absorption, Use restrictions (high), Endocrine disruption (low), Persistence and bioaccumulation (high), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (high), Ecotoxicology (low), and Occupational hazards (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is MODERATE

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is HIGH

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW_MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

Expand content Collapse content

Enhanced skin absorption

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skinNanomaterial Database

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Known human reproductive toxicantCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Possible human developmental toxicantCalifornia EPA Proposition 65
Human reproductive toxicant - strong evidenceProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://wwwoehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-MC
Limited evidence of developmental toxicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of reproductive toxicityNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Known human respiratory toxicantEPA Hazardous Air Pollutants
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at low dosesEPA Categorized List of Inert Pesticide Ingredients
Classified as toxic or harmfulCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicityNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicityBenowitz, NL. Cardiotoxicity in the Workplace. Occupational Medicine. 7(3): 465-477. 1992. (Table 1: Chemical Toxins and Cardiovascular Disease)., US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Kristensen, T. S. Cardiovascular Diseases and the Work Environment. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health. 15:245-264. 1989. (Table 5: Classification of possible risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the work environment)., LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995., Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
reproductive - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox studyNational Library of Medicine HazMap
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife and humansEPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humansEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeCanada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeGreat Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy) PBTs
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeEPA PBTs - Waste Minimization Program (RCRA)
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Use restrictions

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmeticsCanada - Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetics Ingredients

Occupational hazards

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low dosesCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Strong evidence of occupational hazardsCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling

Cancer

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Possible human carcinogenEPA (US. Environmental Protection Agency). Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986 guidelines.
Possible human carcinogenWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 87;2006
Possible human carcinogenNTP Report on Carcinogens, 11th Edition
Possible human carcinogenCalifornia EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidenceProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://wwwoehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityAmer Conf of Gov't Industrial Hygienists - Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 23, Suppl.7 ;1987
Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gapsWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 23, Suppl. 7, 87 ;2006

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesnternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180 Principles and Methods for Assessing Direct Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals. World Health Organization. Geneva, 1996. (Table 1: Examples of compounds that are immunotoxic for humans or rodents).

Endocrine disruption

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Limited evidence of endocrine disruptionBrucker-Davis, F Effects of Environmental Synthetic Chemicals on Thyroid Function. Thyroid. 8(9): 827-856. 1998., Illinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox studyIllinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox studyTelisman et al 2000; Hanas et al. 1999

Ecotoxicology

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicityEPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants
Wildlife and environmental toxicityIllinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System
Wildlife and environmental toxicityEuropean Union - Water Framework Directive
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
356726 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Neurotoxicity

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
nervous system - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox studyNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Data Sources

  • NanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
  • CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
  • California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
  • Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://wwwoehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.-MC
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1987 & 2005. Office of Pesticide Programs. Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients in Pesticide Products - Categorized List of Inert (other) Pesticide Ingredients.
  • Benowitz, NL. Cardiotoxicity in the Workplace. Occupational Medicine. 7(3): 465-477. 1992. (Table 1: Chemical Toxins and Cardiovascular Disease)., US EPA, Air Risk Information Support Center. Health Effects Notebook for Hazardous Air Pollutants. http://www.epa.gov/ttnatw01/hlthef/hapindex.html, A Relational Database of Hazardous Chemicals and Occupational Diseases. Browse Haz-Map by Adverse Effects http://hazmap.nlm.nih.gov/hazmapadv.html, Klaassen, C., M. Amdur and J. Doull (eds.). Casarett and Doull's Toxicology. The Basic Science of Poisons, 5th Ed. Pergamon Press, NY. 1996., Kristensen, T. S. Cardiovascular Diseases and the Work Environment. Scandinavian Journal of Work and Environmental Health. 15:245-264. 1989. (Table 5: Classification of possible risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the work environment)., LaDou, J. (ed.). Occupational Medicine. Appleton & Lange, Norwalk, CN. 1990., Malachowsky, M.J. Health Effects of Toxic Substances. Government Institutes. Rockville, MD 1995., Stacey, N.H. Occupational Toxicology. Taylor & Francis. 1995.
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
  • Great Lakes BTS (Binational Toxics Strategy). 1997. Canada-United States Strategy for the Virtual Elimination of Persistent Toxic Substances in the Great Lakes. Appendix I - Level 1 and Level 2 substances.
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1998. Resource Conservatin and Recovery Act (RCRA) Waste Minimization Program - priority chemicals for elimination or reduction.
  • Health Canada. 2007. List of Prohibited and Restricted Cosmetic Ingredients. Canada's Cosmetic Ingredient Hotlist. March 2007.
  • EPA (US. Environmental Protection Agency). Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986 guidelines.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 87;2006
  • NTP (National Toxicology Program). 2005. Report on Carcinogens, Eleventh Edition; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, National Toxicology Program.
  • Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://wwwoehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
  • ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists) 2008. ACGIH cancer classification system. www.acgih.org.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 23, Suppl.7 ;1987
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 23, Suppl. 7, 87 ;2006
  • nternational Programme of Chemical Safety Environmental Health Criteria 180 Principles and Methods for Assessing Direct Immunotoxicity Associated with Exposure to Chemicals. World Health Organization. Geneva, 1996. (Table 1: Examples of compounds that are immunotoxic for humans or rodents).
  • Brucker-Davis, F Effects of Environmental Synthetic Chemicals on Thyroid Function. Thyroid. 8(9): 827-856. 1998., Illinois EPA. Endocrine Disruptors Strategy. 1997. (Table 1: Preliminary List of Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System Effects in Animals and Humans or In Vitro). http://www.nihs.go.jp/hse/environ/illiepatable.htm, Keith, L.H. (ed.). Environmental Endocrine Disruptors. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 1997. http://www.wileyeurope.com/cda/product/0,,0471191450%7Cdesc%7C3037,00.html, World Wildlife Fund. Our Stolen Future. Widespread Pollutants with Endocrine-disrupting Effects. http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Basics/chemlist.htm. The WWF list is derived from references detailed at http://www.ourstolenfuture.org/Sources/chemsources.htm and was originally published in: Colborn, T., F.S. vom Saal, and A.M. Soto. Developmental Effects of Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals In Wildlife and Humans. Environmental Health Perspectives 101(5): 378-384. 1993.
  • Illinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
  • Telisman et al 2000; Hanas et al. 1999
  • EU (European Union). 2000. Water Framework Directive (Directive 2000/60/EC ) - integrated river basin management for Europe. List of priority substances.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

ABOUT EWG VERIFIED™

Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer