IMAGE SOURCE: PubChem
Other ConcernsUse restrictions (high), Endocrine disruption (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (high), Ecotoxicology (low), Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (high), and Occupational hazards (high)
SYNONYMSBENZENE, ETHENYL, ETHENYLBENZENE, and STYRENE
Unacceptable: EWG VERIFIED products cannot contain this ingredient
See how this product scores for common concerns.
MODERATEAllergies & Immunotoxicity
MODERATEDevelopmental and Reproductive Toxicity
- DATA SOURCES
Products with this Ingredient
|makeup primer||1 products|
|eyelash glue||1 products|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Known human respiratory toxicant||EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants|
|Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs|
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as a low human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
|Classified as irritant||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Limited evidence of any irritation||Open scientific literature|
|Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmetics||CosIng|
|Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Single case study detailing occupational hazards||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|Single case study detailing occupational hazards||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Possible human carcinogen||Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens|
|Possible human carcinogen||California EPA Proposition 65|
|Possible human carcinogen||Open scientific literature|
|Limited evidence of carcinogenicity||Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens|
|Cancer - limited evidence||Silent Spring's Mammary Carcinogens Reviews Database|
|Cancer - limited evidence||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|Human immune and respiratory toxicant or allergen - strong evidence||Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics|
|Limited evidence of any toxicity or allergies||Open scientific literature|
|Human endocrine disruptor - strong evidence||European Commission on Endocrine Disruption|
|Limited evidence of endocrine disruption||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|endocrine - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study||Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System|
|Possible human reproductive or developmental toxin||Open scientific literature|
|Limited evidence of developmental toxicity||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||Illinois EPA Chemicals Associated with Endocrine System|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Occupational hazards related to handling||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Food Additive Status|
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Everything Added to Food|
|8082 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Not suspected to be persistent||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|any - weight of evidence unknown/unassessed/unreview: published lit review or major tox study||Open scientific literature|
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
- ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- European Commission. 2013. Cosing, the European Commission database with information on cosmetic substances and ingredients. Accessed on March 1, 2013 at http://ec.europa.eu/consumers/cosmetics/cosing/ .
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
- California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
- Rudel RA, KR Attfield, JN Schifano and JG Brody. Chemicals Causing Mammary Gland Tumors in Animals Signal New Directions for Epidemiology, Chemicals Testing, and Risk Assessment for Breast Cancer Prevention. CANCER Supplement. 2007 Jun 15;109(12):2635-2666.
- AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
- EU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
- Illinois EPA (Illinois Environmental Protection Agency). 2000. Preliminary list of chemicals associated with endocrine system effects in animals and humans (*) or in vitro (+). In EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) 2000. Handbook for Non-Cancer Health Effects Valuation, Appendix C.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.
Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES
The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.
The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.