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D&C Black No. 2 (CI 77266)

Score:

Data: Robust

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (high), Neurotoxicity (low), Endocrine disruption (low), Persistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), and Contamination concerns (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is MODERATE

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW_MODERATE

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

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eye liner353 products
nail polish235 products
eye shadow168 products
mascara94 products
brow liner82 products
glitter13 products
lip liner12 products
hair color and bleaching7 products
bronzer/highlighter7 products
foundation5 products
lipstick4 products
mask3 products
blush3 products
eyelash glue3 products
nail treatment3 products
hair styling aide2 products
bath oil/salts/soak2 products
bar soap2 products
2 products
exfoliant/scrub1 products
shampoo1 products
hair treatment/serum1 products
concealer1 products
conditioner1 products
moisturizer1 products
nail glue1 products
liquid hand soap1 products
facial powder1 products

Contamination concerns

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Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Violation of government restrictions - Restricted in cosmetics; use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - anyOpen scientific literature
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - anyOpen scientific literature

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Possible human any toxicantOpen scientific literature
Classified as a high human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Possible human respiratory toxicantCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Cancer - strong evidenceScorecard.org Toxicity Information
Possible human carcinogenCalifornia EPA Proposition 65
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityInt'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens
Possible mutagenOpen scientific literature

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Possible human immune and respiratory toxicant or allergenOpen scientific literature

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humansOpen scientific literature
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
Limited evidence of developmental/reproductive toxicityOpen scientific literature

Neurotoxicity

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Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show any effects at moderate dosesOpen scientific literature

Endocrine disruption

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Concern Reference
Associated with endocrine disruptionOpen scientific literature

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
471 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyOpen scientific literature

Data Sources

  • Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • CHE (The Collaborative on Health and the Environment). 2006. Toxicant and Disease Database.
  • ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
  • California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
  • IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met the program’s impurity and use restrictions based on EWG's review of the company's data.

ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

ABOUT EWG VERIFIED™

Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer