D&C Black No. 2 (CI 77266)
Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|eye liner||353 products|
|nail polish||235 products|
|eye shadow||168 products|
|brow liner||82 products|
|lip liner||12 products|
|hair color and bleaching||7 products|
|eyelash glue||3 products|
|nail treatment||3 products|
|hair styling aide||2 products|
|bath oil/salts/soak||2 products|
|bar soap||2 products|
|hair treatment/serum||1 products|
|nail glue||1 products|
|liquid hand soap||1 products|
|facial powder||1 products|
|Violation of government restrictions - Restricted in cosmetics; use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - any||Open scientific literature|
|Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - any||Open scientific literature|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Possible human any toxicant||Open scientific literature|
|Classified as a high human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Possible human respiratory toxicant||CHE Toxicant and Disease Database|
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Cancer - strong evidence||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|Possible human carcinogen||California EPA Proposition 65|
|Limited evidence of carcinogenicity||Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens|
|Possible mutagen||Open scientific literature|
|Possible human immune and respiratory toxicant or allergen||Open scientific literature|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Persistent or bioaccumulative and moderate to high toxicity concern in humans||Open scientific literature|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Limited evidence of developmental/reproductive toxicity||Open scientific literature|
|One or more animal studies show any effects at moderate doses||Open scientific literature|
|Associated with endocrine disruption||Open scientific literature|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|471 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - any||Open scientific literature|
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- CHE (The Collaborative on Health and the Environment). 2006. Toxicant and Disease Database.
- ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
- California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
- IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
- Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met the program’s impurity and use restrictions based on EWG's review of the company's data.
ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS
EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer
ABOUT EWG VERIFIED™
Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer