Menu Close Menu

Menu

D&C Black No. 2 (CI 77266)

Score:

Data: Robust

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (high), Neurotoxicity (low), Endocrine disruption (low), Persistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), and Contamination concerns (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is MODERATE

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW_MODERATE

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

Expand content Collapse content
eye liner135 products
eye shadow70 products
mascara43 products
nail polish18 products
brow liner14 products
lip liner12 products
nail treatment6 products
foundation6 products
glitter4 products
blush4 products
bronzer/highlighter3 products
eyelash glue2 products
lipstick1 products
lip gloss1 products
facial moisturizer/treatment1 products
facial powder1 products
BB cream1 products
mask1 products
exfoliant/scrub1 products
concealer1 products

Contamination concerns

Expand content Collapse content

Use restrictions

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Restricted in European cosmeticsEU Cosmetics Directive 2019. CosIng. Appears as: listid: COSING-91006; Chemical_Name: carbon black (nano); Synonyms: 77266; CAS: 1333-86-4
Color additive approved by FDA for limited uses in cosmeticsUS. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2020. Color Additive Status. Appears as: ; Chemical_Name: D&C Black No. 2; ;

Cancer

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Possible human carcinogenCalifornia EPA Proposition 65
Cancer - strong evidenceProposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://wwwoehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 65, 93 ;in prep.
SCCS concludes this substance may be genotoxic based on in vivo and in vitro evidence.European Commission, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2015. Opinion on Carbon Black (nano-form).

Allergies/immunotoxicity

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
SCCS concludes this substance impacts the immune system when inhaled.European Commission, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2015. Opinion on Carbon Black (nano-form).

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
SCCS reports that inhalation of this substance impacted lung function in healthy humans.European Commission, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2015. Opinion on Carbon Black (nano-form).
Classified as a high human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Possible human respiratory toxicantCHE Toxicant and Disease Database
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
SCCS concludes this substance accumulates in the lungs of humans.European Commission, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2015. Opinion on Carbon Black (nano-form).
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
SCCS reports that this substance may be toxic to reproduction/development when inhaled.European Commission, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2015. Opinion on Carbon Black (nano-form).

Neurotoxicity

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
A peer-reviewed study reports that maternal inhalation of this substance led to neurodevelopmental effects in offspring.Masakazu Umezawa, Atsuto Onoda, Irina Korshunova, Alexander C Ø Jensen, Ismo K. Koponen, Keld A. Jensen, Konstantin Khodosevich, Ulla Vogel & Karin S. Hougaard. 2018. Maternal inhalation of carbon black nanoparticles induces neurodevelopmental changes in mouse offspring. Particle and fibre toxicology 15(1), 36.

Endocrine disruption

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
A peer-reviewed article repors this substance impacted hormone production in vitro.Violaine Simon, Charlotte Avet, Valérie Grange-Messent, Richard Wargnier, Chantal Denoyelle, Alice Pierre, Julien Dairou, Jean-Marie Dupret & Joëlle Cohen-Tannoudji 2017. Carbon Black Nanoparticles Inhibit Aromatase Expression and Estradiol Secretion in Human Granulosa Cells Through the ERK1/2 Pathway. Endocrinology 158(10), 3200-3211.

Data gaps

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
471 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Ecotoxicology

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Informational

Expand content Collapse content
Concern Reference
Color additive not approved by FDA for cosmetics used around eyesUS. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2015. Color Additive Status. Appears as: listid: COLOR-022; Chemical_Name: Carbon black; ; CAS: 1333-86-4

Data Sources

  • EU Cosmetics Directive 2019. CosIng. Appears as: listid: COSING-91006; Chemical_Name: carbon black (nano); Synonyms: 77266; CAS: 1333-86-4
  • US. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2020. Color Additive Status. Appears as: ; Chemical_Name: D&C Black No. 2; ;
  • California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
  • Proposition 65 List of Carcinogens (July 2004) can be obtained from http://wwwoehha.ca.gov/prop65/prop65_list/Newlist.html.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 65, 93 ;in prep.
  • European Commission, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2015. Opinion on Carbon Black (nano-form).
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • CHE (The Collaborative on Health and the Environment). 2006. Toxicant and Disease Database.
  • Masakazu Umezawa, Atsuto Onoda, Irina Korshunova, Alexander C Ø Jensen, Ismo K. Koponen, Keld A. Jensen, Konstantin Khodosevich, Ulla Vogel & Karin S. Hougaard. 2018. Maternal inhalation of carbon black nanoparticles induces neurodevelopmental changes in mouse offspring. Particle and fibre toxicology 15(1), 36.
  • Violaine Simon, Charlotte Avet, Valérie Grange-Messent, Richard Wargnier, Chantal Denoyelle, Alice Pierre, Julien Dairou, Jean-Marie Dupret & Joëlle Cohen-Tannoudji 2017. Carbon Black Nanoparticles Inhibit Aromatase Expression and Estradiol Secretion in Human Granulosa Cells Through the ERK1/2 Pathway. Endocrinology 158(10), 3200-3211.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • US. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2015. Color Additive Status. Appears as: listid: COLOR-022; Chemical_Name: Carbon black; ; CAS: 1333-86-4

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met the program’s impurity and use restrictions based on EWG's review of the company's data.

ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS

EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

ABOUT EWG VERIFIED™

Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer