Other ConcernsNon-reproductive organ system toxicity (high), Ecotoxicology (low), Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (low), and Occupational hazards (high)
This ingredient is not currently on EWG's Skin Deep Restricted or Unacceptable Lists.
See how this product scores for common concerns.
LOWAllergies & Immunotoxicity
LOWDevelopmental and Reproductive Toxicity
- DATA SOURCES
Products with this Ingredient
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Known human respiratory toxicant||EPA Hazardous Air Pollutants|
|Classified as medium human health priority||Open scientific literature|
|Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as toxic or harmful||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Limited evidence of respiratory toxicity||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs|
|Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Single case study detailing occupational hazards||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Limited evidence of any toxicity or allergies||Open scientific literature|
Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
|Limited evidence of any irritation||Open scientific literature|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Open scientific literature|
|Occupational hazards related to handling||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be persistent||Open scientific literature|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Open scientific literature|
|Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gaps||Int'l Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) - Carcinogens|
|Not likely to be carcinogenic in humans||Open scientific literature|
|3414 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2005. Office of Air. The 112(b)1 Hazardous Air Pollutants List (as modified). Last modified: 12 Dec 2005.
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
- ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer). 2008. Overall Evaluations of Carcinogenicity to Humans, as evaluated in IARC Monographs Volumes 1-99 (a total of 935 agents, mixtures and exposures).
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.
Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES
The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED® mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.
The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.