Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)
|Classified as irritant||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence||IJT 25(S1):29-127, 2006 IJT 16(S3):235-68,1997 (Original Report)|
|Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidence||EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature|
|Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies||Nordic Council of Ministers (Nordic Allergy Project) Kriteriedokumenter fra nordisk allergiprojekt - vurdering af 50 kemiske stoffers evne til at forarsage allergi, en litteraturgennemgang. Nord 1991:51. Copenhagen, 1991.|
|Human endocrine disruptor - moderate evidence||European Commission on Endocrine Disruption|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Limited evidence of eye toxicity||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as toxic or harmful||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Safe for use in cosmetics with some qualifications||IJT 25(S1):29-127, 2006 IJT 16(S3):235-68,1997 (Original Report)|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants|
|Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|369 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Determined safe for use in cosmetics up to a specified concentration limit||IJT 25(S1):29-127, 2006 IJT 16(S3):235-68,1997 (Original Report)|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
- CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
- IJT 25(S1):29-127, 2006 IJT 16(S3):235-68,1997 (Original Report)
- EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature
- Nordic Council of Ministers (Nordic Allergy Project) Kriteriedokumenter fra nordisk allergiprojekt - vurdering af 50 kemiske stoffers evne til at forarsage allergi, en litteraturgennemgang. Nord 1991:51. Copenhagen, 1991.
- EU (European Union)- Strategy for Endocrine Disrupters 2007. Commision on endocrin disruption requested by the European Parliament in 1998.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
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EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer
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