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CITRUS AURANTIUM AMARA (BITTER ORANGE) PEEL OIL

Score:

Data: Limited

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (moderate), Persistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is HIGH

Products with this Ingredient

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facial moisturizer/treatment17 products
moisturizer17 products
moisturizer with SPF15 products
serums & essences13 products
exfoliant/scrub8 products
shampoo8 products
fragrance for women8 products
facial cleanser7 products
body wash/cleanser7 products
CC cream7 products
bath oil/salts/soak6 products
mask5 products
toners/astringents5 products
body oil5 products
body spray4 products
conditioner4 products
anti-aging3 products
toothpaste3 products
bar soap3 products
hand cream2 products
liquid hand soap2 products
around-eye cream2 products
tooth whitening2 products
hair treatment/serum2 products
antiperspirant/deodorant1 products
beach & sport sunscreen1 products
shaving cream1 products
fragrance for men1 products
foot cleansing1 products
hair styling aide1 products
makeup primer1 products
after shave1 products
baby soap1 products
body powder1 products
baby shampoo1 products
detangler1 products
foot odor control1 products
beard oil1 products

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Known human any toxicant or allergenOpinion on Frangrance allergens in cosmetics (2011), EU Cosmetics Directive
Fragrance chemical, which is less frequently reported and thus less documented as a consumer allergen.European Union 2015. Banned and Restricted Fragrances. Appears as: listid: EUFRAG-046; Chemical_Name: Limonene; Synonyms: d-Limonene;
Human [[system]] toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2018. Safer Chemical Ingredients List (2018-02-28). Appears as: CAS: 5989-27-5; List Name: d-Limonene; TSCA Chemical Name: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-
May cause sensitization by skin contactEU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
May cause sensitization by skin contact, with allergic reaction in skin or lungsUS. National Library of Medicine,. 2015. Haz-Map®. Appears as: listid: HMAP-0695-1; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
Limited evidence of [[system]] toxicity or allergiesEuropean Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Orange, sour, ext.; (4R)-1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; (4R)-1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; -; Bitter Orange essential oil; Bitter Orange Oil; citrus aurantium amara extract; Citrus aurantium amara peel oil; Citrus aurantium es; cas_numbers: 8014-17-3, 8016-38-4, 68916-04-1, 72968-50-4

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
Industry restrictions due to photoirritation.International Fragrance Association (IFRA) 2015. IFRA Codes & Standards. Appears as: listid: IFRA-029; Chemical_Name: Bitter Orange Peel Oil Expressed; Synonyms: Orange Peel Oil, Bitter (Citrus aurantium L. subsp amara L.)Bitter orange oil (Citrus aurantium L. subsp. amara L.)Citrus aurantium peel oil Curacao peel oil (Citrus aurantium L.) Daidai peel oil (Citrus aurantium L.); CAS: 68916-04-1; Classification: Restricted

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concernOSPAR Comission 2015. OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern. Appears as: listid: PBT-OSPAR-249; Chemical_Name: (4R)-CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-; Synonyms: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-; CAS: 5989-27-5
This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. Flagged for suspected aquatic toxicity.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05949; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. Flagged for suspected aquatic toxicity.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05949; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; ; CAS: 5989-27-5

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Recommended restricted in cosmetics - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only within recommended use or concentration limitsn)IFRA_Standard_90html
Restricted in cosmetics - labeling requirement for allergensEU Cosmetics Directive 2015. CosIng. Appears as: listid: COSING-27937; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene (CAS No 5989-27-5); ; CAS: 5989-27-5

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
Developmental toxicity (significant increase in the number of fetuses with skeletal abnormalities, including lumbar ribs, fused ribs, and delayed ossification of several bones in the paws) were observed in the animals administered 2363 mg/kg/day.1977 Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer (VII) Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings. Oyo Yakuri 13(6), 863-873.

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Dangerous for the environmentEU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep�). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (¬±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. Flagged for suspected aquatic toxicity.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05949; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Insufficient data to determine safetyFinal report 12/2016 available from CIR
4 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Miscellaneous

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Concern Reference
FlammableEU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5

Cancer

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Concern Reference
IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)IARC 2015. IRAC Carcinogens (Skin Deep�). Appears as: listid: IARC-653; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • Opinion on Frangrance allergens in cosmetics (2011), EU Cosmetics Directive
  • European Union 2015. Banned and Restricted Fragrances. Appears as: listid: EUFRAG-046; Chemical_Name: Limonene; Synonyms: d-Limonene;
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2018. Safer Chemical Ingredients List (2018-02-28). Appears as: CAS: 5989-27-5; List Name: d-Limonene; TSCA Chemical Name: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-
  • EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • US. National Library of Medicine,. 2015. Haz-Map®. Appears as: listid: HMAP-0695-1; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Orange, sour, ext.; (4R)-1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; (4R)-1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; -; Bitter Orange essential oil; Bitter Orange Oil; citrus aurantium amara extract; Citrus aurantium amara peel oil; Citrus aurantium es; cas_numbers: 8014-17-3, 8016-38-4, 68916-04-1, 72968-50-4
  • International Fragrance Association (IFRA) 2015. IFRA Codes & Standards. Appears as: listid: IFRA-029; Chemical_Name: Bitter Orange Peel Oil Expressed; Synonyms: Orange Peel Oil, Bitter (Citrus aurantium L. subsp amara L.)Bitter orange oil (Citrus aurantium L. subsp. amara L.)Citrus aurantium peel oil Curacao peel oil (Citrus aurantium L.) Daidai peel oil (Citrus aurantium L.); CAS: 68916-04-1; Classification: Restricted
  • OSPAR Comission 2015. OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern. Appears as: listid: PBT-OSPAR-249; Chemical_Name: (4R)-CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-; Synonyms: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05949; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • IFRA_Standard_90html
  • EU Cosmetics Directive 2015. CosIng. Appears as: listid: COSING-27937; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene (CAS No 5989-27-5); ; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • 1977 Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer (VII) Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings. Oyo Yakuri 13(6), 863-873.
  • EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep�). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • Final report 12/2016 available from CIR
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • IARC 2015. IRAC Carcinogens (Skin Deep�). Appears as: listid: IARC-653; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.

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