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CITRUS AURANTIUM AMARA (BITTER ORANGE) PEEL OIL

Score:

Data: Limited

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (moderate), Persistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), and Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs) (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is HIGH

Products with this Ingredient

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facial moisturizer/treatment23 products
serums & essences19 products
moisturizer17 products
daily use with SPF16 products
fragrance for women8 products
exfoliant/scrub8 products
body wash/cleanser8 products
facial cleanser8 products
shampoo7 products
CC cream7 products
bath oil/salts/soak7 products
body oil6 products
toners/astringents5 products
hair treatment/serum5 products
mask5 products
beard oil5 products
conditioner5 products
toothpaste3 products
body spray3 products
setting powder/spray3 products
hand cream3 products
baby shampoo2 products
anti-aging2 products
antiperspirant/deodorant2 products
tooth whitening2 products
shaving cream2 products
around-eye cream2 products
bar soap2 products
liquid hand soap2 products
fragrance for men1 products
makeup remover1 products
recreational sunscreen1 products
bubble bath1 products
hair styling aide1 products
baby soap1 products
makeup primer1 products
after shave1 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)1 products
detangler1 products
body powder1 products
baby bubble bath1 products
foot odor control1 products
foot cleansing1 products

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Known human any toxicant or allergenOpinion on Frangrance allergens in cosmetics (2011), EU Cosmetics Directive
Fragrance chemical, which is less frequently reported and thus less documented as a consumer allergen.European Union 2015. Banned and Restricted Fragrances. Appears as: listid: EUFRAG-046; Chemical_Name: Limonene; Synonyms: d-Limonene;
Human [[system]] toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceEnvironmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2018. Safer Chemical Ingredients List (2018-02-28). Appears as: CAS: 5989-27-5; List Name: d-Limonene; TSCA Chemical Name: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-
May cause sensitization by skin contactEU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
May cause sensitization by skin contact, with allergic reaction in skin or lungsUS. National Library of Medicine,. 2015. Haz-Map®. Appears as: listid: HMAP-0695-1; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
Limited evidence of [[system]] toxicity or allergiesEuropean Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Orange, sour, ext.; (4R)-1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; (4R)-1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; -; Bitter Orange essential oil; Bitter Orange Oil; citrus aurantium amara extract; Citrus aurantium amara peel oil; Citrus aurantium es; cas_numbers: 8014-17-3, 8016-38-4, 68916-04-1, 72968-50-4

Irritation (skin, eyes, or lungs)

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Concern Reference
Irritant (eyes, skin, or lungs)EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
Industry restrictions due to photoirritation.International Fragrance Association (IFRA) 2015. IFRA Codes & Standards. Appears as: listid: IFRA-029; Chemical_Name: Bitter Orange Peel Oil Expressed; Synonyms: Orange Peel Oil, Bitter (Citrus aurantium L. subsp amara L.)Bitter orange oil (Citrus aurantium L. subsp. amara L.)Citrus aurantium peel oil Curacao peel oil (Citrus aurantium L.) Daidai peel oil (Citrus aurantium L.); CAS: 68916-04-1; Classification: Restricted

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Recommended restricted in cosmetics - use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Fragrance subject to restrictions: safe only within recommended use or concentration limitsn)IFRA_Standard_90html
Restricted in cosmetics - labeling requirement for allergensEU Cosmetics Directive 2015. CosIng. Appears as: listid: COSING-27937; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene (CAS No 5989-27-5); ; CAS: 5989-27-5

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Persistent, bioaccumulative toxicant - Oslo-Paris (OSPAR) Convention for the Protection of the Marine Environment of the North-East Atlantic, chemical of concernOSPAR Comission 2015. OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern. Appears as: listid: PBT-OSPAR-249; Chemical_Name: (4R)-CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-; Synonyms: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-; CAS: 5989-27-5
This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. Flagged for suspected aquatic toxicity.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05949; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. Flagged for suspected aquatic toxicity.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05949; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; ; CAS: 5989-27-5

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
Developmental toxicity (significant increase in the number of fetuses with skeletal abnormalities, including lumbar ribs, fused ribs, and delayed ossification of several bones in the paws) were observed in the animals administered 2363 mg/kg/day.1977 Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer (VII) Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings. Oyo Yakuri 13(6), 863-873.

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Dangerous for the environmentEU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep�). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (¬±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. Flagged for suspected aquatic toxicity.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05949; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Insufficient data to determine safetyFinal report 12/2016 available from CIR
4 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Miscellaneous

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Concern Reference
FlammableEU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Cancer

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Concern Reference
IARC Group 3 (no cancer link)IARC 2015. IRAC Carcinogens (Skin Deep�). Appears as: listid: IARC-653; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5

Data Sources

  • Opinion on Frangrance allergens in cosmetics (2011), EU Cosmetics Directive
  • European Union 2015. Banned and Restricted Fragrances. Appears as: listid: EUFRAG-046; Chemical_Name: Limonene; Synonyms: d-Limonene;
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 2018. Safer Chemical Ingredients List (2018-02-28). Appears as: CAS: 5989-27-5; List Name: d-Limonene; TSCA Chemical Name: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-
  • EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep®). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • US. National Library of Medicine,. 2015. Haz-Map®. Appears as: listid: HMAP-0695-1; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) 2018. GHS Data from ECHA Website. Appears as: chemical_names: Orange, sour, ext.; (4R)-1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; (4R)-1-methyl-4-(prop-1-en-2-yl)cyclohex-1-ene; -; Bitter Orange essential oil; Bitter Orange Oil; citrus aurantium amara extract; Citrus aurantium amara peel oil; Citrus aurantium es; cas_numbers: 8014-17-3, 8016-38-4, 68916-04-1, 72968-50-4
  • International Fragrance Association (IFRA) 2015. IFRA Codes & Standards. Appears as: listid: IFRA-029; Chemical_Name: Bitter Orange Peel Oil Expressed; Synonyms: Orange Peel Oil, Bitter (Citrus aurantium L. subsp amara L.)Bitter orange oil (Citrus aurantium L. subsp. amara L.)Citrus aurantium peel oil Curacao peel oil (Citrus aurantium L.) Daidai peel oil (Citrus aurantium L.); CAS: 68916-04-1; Classification: Restricted
  • IFRA_Standard_90html
  • EU Cosmetics Directive 2015. CosIng. Appears as: listid: COSING-27937; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene (CAS No 5989-27-5); ; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • OSPAR Comission 2015. OSPAR PBTs - Substances of Possible Concern. Appears as: listid: PBT-OSPAR-249; Chemical_Name: (4R)-CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-; Synonyms: CYCLOHEXENE, 1-METHYL-4-(1-METHYLETHENYL)-, (4R)-; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-05949; Chemical_Name: Cyclohexene, 1-methyl-4-(1-methylethenyl)-, (R)-; ; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • 1977 Studies on d-limonene as a gallstone solubilizer (VII) Effects on development of mouse fetuses and offsprings. Oyo Yakuri 13(6), 863-873.
  • EU GHS Hazard Labeling Codes 2015. Classification & Labelling (Skin Deep�). Appears as: listid: 601-029-00-7-61; Chemical_Name: DIPENTENE; Synonyms: limonene; [1] ; (R)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; d-limonene; [2] ; (S)-p-mentha-1,8-diene; ; l-limonene; [3] ; trans-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene; [4] ; (±)-1-methyl-4-(1-methylvinyl)cyclohexene [5]; CAS: 5989-27-5
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • Final report 12/2016 available from CIR
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • IARC 2015. IRAC Carcinogens (Skin Deep�). Appears as: listid: IARC-653; Chemical_Name: d-Limonene; ; CAS: 5989-27-5

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.

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EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer

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