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Carbon black (Uncertified D&C Black No. 2)

Score:

Data: Robust

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (high), Neurotoxicity (low), Endocrine disruption (low), Persistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), and Contamination concerns (high)

Cancer

Cancer concern is MODERATE

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW_MODERATE

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

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eye liner10 products
mascara2 products
eye shadow2 products
mask2 products
lip liner2 products
eyelash glue1 products

Contamination concerns

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Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmeticsCTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook
Violation of government restrictions - Banned or found unsafe for use in cosmeticsFDA Color Additive Status
Violation of government restrictions - Restricted in cosmetics; use, concentration, or manufacturing restrictions - Color additive not approved by FDA for cosmetics used around eyesFDA Color Additive Status

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
SCCS reports that inhalation of this substance impacted lung function in healthy humans.European Commission, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2015. Opinion on Carbon Black (nano-form).
Classified as a high human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as expected to be toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
This chemical was NOT flagged by CEPA for further attention. Flagged for suspected persistence.Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-04544; Chemical_Name: 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 6-amino-4-hydroxy-3-[[7-sulfo- 4-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]-1-naphthalenyl]azo]-, tetrasodium salt; ; CAS: 2118-39-0

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
SCCS concludes this substance accumulates in the lungs of humans.European Commission, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2015. Opinion on Carbon Black (nano-form).
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Cancer

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Concern Reference
Possible human carcinogenCalifornia EPA Proposition 65
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityNIOSH Occupational Carcinogens
Limited evidence of carcinogenicityWorld Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 65, 93 ;in prep.
SCCS concludes this substance may be genotoxic based on in vivo and in vitro evidence.European Commission, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2015. Opinion on Carbon Black (nano-form).

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
SCCS concludes this substance impacts the immune system when inhaled.European Commission, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2015. Opinion on Carbon Black (nano-form).

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
SCCS reports that this substance may be toxic to reproduction/development when inhaled.European Commission, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2015. Opinion on Carbon Black (nano-form).

Neurotoxicity

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Concern Reference
A peer-reviewed study reports that maternal inhalation of this substance led to neurodevelopmental effects in offspring.Masakazu Umezawa, Atsuto Onoda, Irina Korshunova, Alexander C Ø Jensen, Ismo K. Koponen, Keld A. Jensen, Konstantin Khodosevich, Ulla Vogel & Karin S. Hougaard. 2018. Maternal inhalation of carbon black nanoparticles induces neurodevelopmental changes in mouse offspring. Particle and fibre toxicology 15(1), 36.

Endocrine disruption

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Concern Reference
A peer-reviewed article repors this substance impacted hormone production in vitro.Violaine Simon, Charlotte Avet, Valérie Grange-Messent, Richard Wargnier, Chantal Denoyelle, Alice Pierre, Julien Dairou, Jean-Marie Dupret & Joëlle Cohen-Tannoudji 2017. Carbon Black Nanoparticles Inhibit Aromatase Expression and Estradiol Secretion in Human Granulosa Cells Through the ERK1/2 Pathway. Endocrinology 158(10), 3200-3211.

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive not approved by FDA for use in foodFDA Color Additive Status

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
994358 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Data Sources

  • CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
  • European Commission, Scientific Committee on Consumer Safety (SCCS) 2015. Opinion on Carbon Black (nano-form).
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • Environment Canada 2015. Domestic Substance List. Appears as: listid: ECDSL-04544; Chemical_Name: 2,7-Naphthalenedisulfonic acid, 6-amino-4-hydroxy-3-[[7-sulfo- 4-[(4-sulfophenyl)azo]-1-naphthalenyl]azo]-, tetrasodium salt; ; CAS: 2118-39-0
  • California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency). 9/2008. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity.
  • NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
  • World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 65, 93 ;in prep.
  • Masakazu Umezawa, Atsuto Onoda, Irina Korshunova, Alexander C Ø Jensen, Ismo K. Koponen, Keld A. Jensen, Konstantin Khodosevich, Ulla Vogel & Karin S. Hougaard. 2018. Maternal inhalation of carbon black nanoparticles induces neurodevelopmental changes in mouse offspring. Particle and fibre toxicology 15(1), 36.
  • Violaine Simon, Charlotte Avet, Valérie Grange-Messent, Richard Wargnier, Chantal Denoyelle, Alice Pierre, Julien Dairou, Jean-Marie Dupret & Joëlle Cohen-Tannoudji 2017. Carbon Black Nanoparticles Inhibit Aromatase Expression and Estradiol Secretion in Human Granulosa Cells Through the ERK1/2 Pathway. Endocrinology 158(10), 3200-3211.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

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