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Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Use restrictions (low) and Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate)


Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

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mascara147 products
lipstick24 products
serums & essences23 products
moisturizer8 products
facial cleanser8 products
shampoo8 products
mask8 products
facial moisturizer/treatment7 products
exfoliant/scrub6 products
liquid hand soap5 products
body wash/cleanser5 products
eye liner5 products
styling gel/lotion5 products
body firming lotion4 products
makeup primer4 products
beach & sport sunscreen3 products
around-eye cream3 products
anti-aging3 products
conditioner2 products
moisturizer with SPF2 products
body powder1 products
toothpaste1 products
antiperspirant/deodorant1 products
after sun product1 products
bar soap1 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)1 products
eye makeup remover1 products
sunless tanning1 products
muscle/joint soreness1 products
BB cream1 products
bath oil/salts/soak1 products
makeup remover1 products
brow liner1 products
toners/astringents1 products
hair treatment/serum1 products


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Concern Reference
Human immune and respiratory toxicant or allergen - strong evidence9000-01-05
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceIJT 24(S3):75-118, 2005
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceEWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as medium human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Use restrictions

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Concern Reference
Determined safe for use in cosmetics, subject to concentration or use limitations - Restrictions on impurities recommended by industry safety panelIJT 24(S3):75-118, 2005

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productIJT 24(S3):75-118, 2005
Considered safe based on assumption of low absorptionIJT 24(S3):75-118, 2005
2597 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed


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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodIJT 24(S3):75-118, 2005
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food


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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyIJT 24(S3):75-118, 2005

Data Sources

  • 9000-01-05
  • IJT 24(S3):75-118, 2005
  • EWG Assessment of Open Scientific Literature
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from, Oct 16, 2006.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met use restrictions and warnings based on EWG review of company data.


EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer


Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer