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ZINC OXIDE

Score:

Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Persistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), and Occupational hazards (moderate)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW_MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

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foundation264 products
concealer99 products
facial powder42 products
lip liner38 products
lipstick37 products
antiperspirant/deodorant36 products
daily use with SPF29 products
facial moisturizer/treatment29 products
BB cream24 products
blush18 products
17 products
mask15 products
diaper cream13 products
makeup primer13 products
eye shadow12 products
lip gloss10 products
moisturizer10 products
eye liner10 products
toothpaste9 products
lip balm8 products
anti-aging8 products
setting powder/spray8 products
body powder8 products
bronzer/highlighter7 products
CC cream7 products
bar soap6 products
facial cleanser5 products
serums & essences5 products
around-eye cream5 products
hair color and bleaching4 products
body wash/cleanser3 products
baby lotion3 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)3 products
exfoliant/scrub3 products
body firming lotion2 products
recreational sunscreen2 products
shampoo2 products
shaving cream2 products
body spray2 products
damaged skin treatment1 products
mascara1 products
after shave1 products
brow liner1 products
shaving cream (men's)1 products
baby sunscreen1 products
bath oil/salts/soak1 products
depilatory1 products
hand cream1 products
tooth whitening1 products
foot odor control1 products

Enhanced skin absorption

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Concern Reference
Bulk size zinc oxide does not appear to penetrate healthy or psoriatic skin, results of in-vitro and in-vivo studies indicate absorbance of <1%SCCNFP 2003. Opinion concerning Zinc Oxide: European Commission - The Scientfic Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers. Available: http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/sccp/sccp_opinions_en.htm

Occupational hazards

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Concern Reference
Zinc inhalation causes metal fume fever, an acute self-limited illness. Zinc oxide is the most common cause.Gordon T, Fine JM 1993. Metal fume fever. Occup Med. Jul-Sep;8(3):504-17. Review.
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate dosesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Decreased skin absorption

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Concern Reference
Human study showed about 0.4% of zinc oxide penetrated to bloodstreamGulson B, McCall MJ, Gomez L, Korsch M, Casey P, Kinsley L 2010. Dermal absorption of ZnO particles from sunscreens applied to humans at the beach. realizebeauty.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/iconn2010-abstract-gulson1.pdf

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeCanada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Zinc found to be bioaccumulative in Arctic seabirdsBorgå K, Campbell L, Gabrielsen GW, Norstrom RJ, Muir DC, Fisk AT 2006. Regional and species specific bioaccumulation of major and trace elements in Arctic seabirds. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006 Nov;25(11):2927-36.

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Nano- and fine-sized zinc oxide produced potent but reversible inflammation of the lungs, which was resolved by 1 month post-instillation exposure.Sayes CM, Reed KL, Warheit DB 2007. Assessing toxicity of fine and nanoparticles: comparing in vitro measurements to in vivo pulmonary toxicity profiles. Toxicol Sci 97(1): 163-80.

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Possible human respiratory toxicantAssociation of Occupational and Environmental Clinics
Limited evidence of respiratory toxicityCalifornia EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Wildlife and environmental toxicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicityAdams, L K., D. Y. Lyon, et al. (2006). "Comparative eco-toxicity of nanoscale TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO water suspensions." Water Research Article in Press.

Informational

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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationCTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmeticsFDA Color Additive Status

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
Not likely to be a reproductive toxicant in humansEuropean_Chemicals_Bureau 2004. ZINC OXIDE Part II – Human Health, CAS No: 1314-13-2, EINECS No: 215-222-5; Summary Risk Assessment Report Addendum to the Part II (Human Health) I-21020 Ispra (VA) Italy.

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
6924 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Data Sources

  • SCCNFP 2003. Opinion concerning Zinc Oxide: European Commission - The Scientfic Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers. Available: http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/sccp/sccp_opinions_en.htm
  • Gordon T, Fine JM 1993. Metal fume fever. Occup Med. Jul-Sep;8(3):504-17. Review.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap &#8212; Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • Gulson B, McCall MJ, Gomez L, Korsch M, Casey P, Kinsley L 2010. Dermal absorption of ZnO particles from sunscreens applied to humans at the beach. realizebeauty.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/iconn2010-abstract-gulson1.pdf
  • EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
  • BorgÃ¥ K, Campbell L, Gabrielsen GW, Norstrom RJ, Muir DC, Fisk AT 2006. Regional and species specific bioaccumulation of major and trace elements in Arctic seabirds. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2006 Nov;25(11):2927-36.
  • Sayes CM, Reed KL, Warheit DB 2007. Assessing toxicity of fine and nanoparticles: comparing in vitro measurements to in vivo pulmonary toxicity profiles. Toxicol Sci 97(1): 163-80.
  • AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
  • California EPA, Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment Air Toxics Hot Spots Program Risk Assessment Guidelines, Part III: Technical Support Document
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
  • CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
  • Adams, L K., D. Y. Lyon, et al. (2006). "Comparative eco-toxicity of nanoscale TiO2, SiO2, and ZnO water suspensions." Water Research Article in Press.
  • CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
  • European_Chemicals_Bureau 2004. ZINC OXIDE Part II – Human Health, CAS No: 1314-13-2, EINECS No: 215-222-5; Summary Risk Assessment Report Addendum to the Part II (Human Health) I-21020 Ispra (VA) Italy.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.

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