Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|daily use with SPF||52 products|
|facial powder||42 products|
|lip liner||38 products|
|facial moisturizer/treatment||31 products|
|BB cream||23 products|
|body powder||14 products|
|diaper cream||14 products|
|makeup primer||14 products|
|nail polish||12 products|
|eye shadow||12 products|
|eye liner||10 products|
|lip gloss||10 products|
|hair color and bleaching||8 products|
|setting powder/spray||8 products|
|lip balm||8 products|
|serums & essences||5 products|
|around-eye cream||5 products|
|facial cleanser||5 products|
|body wash/cleanser||4 products|
|antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)||4 products|
|baby lotion||3 products|
|body spray||3 products|
|foot odor control||3 products|
|bar soap||3 products|
|body firming lotion||2 products|
|recreational sunscreen||2 products|
|skin fading/lightener||2 products|
|shaving cream||2 products|
|shaving cream (men's)||1 products|
|baby sunscreen||1 products|
|damaged skin treatment||1 products|
|bath oil/salts/soak||1 products|
|after shave||1 products|
|brow liner||1 products|
|lip balm with SPF||1 products|
|hand cream||1 products|
|tooth whitening||1 products|
Enhanced skin absorption
|Does not cause enhanced penetration||Open scientific literature|
|Strong evidence of occupational hazards||Open scientific literature|
|Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife||Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)|
|Found to be persistent and bioaccumulative in wildlife||Open scientific literature|
Decreased skin absorption
|Limited potential to absorb into the skin.||Open scientific literature|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Possible human respiratory toxicant||Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics|
|Limited evidence of any toxicity||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs|
|One or more animal studies show any or allergenic effects at very low doses||Open scientific literature|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||Open scientific literature|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Food Additive Status|
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Everything Added to Food|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmetics||FDA Color Additive Status|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration||CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook|
|Not likely to be a reproductive toxicant in humans||Open scientific literature|
|6924 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
- AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
- ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
- CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
- CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS
EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer
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