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Data: Fair

Zinc Oxide

  • This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.

IMAGE SOURCE: PubChem

SEARCH PRODUCTS

Other Concerns

Persistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), and Occupational hazards (moderate)

SYNONYMS

CI 77947, FLOWERS OF ZINC, LOW TEMPERATURE BURNED ZINC OXIDE, PHILOSOPHER'S WOOL, PIGMENT WHITE 4, ZINC FLOWERS, ZINC OXIDE, ZINC OXIDE (NON-NANO), and ZINC WHITE

Zinc Oxide is an inorganic oxide used as a colorant and sunscreen agent.

Common concerns

See how this product scores for common concerns.

  • LOW
    Cancer
  • MODERATE
    Allergies & Immunotoxicity
  • LOW
    Developmental and Reingredientive Toxicity
  • LOW
    Use Restrictions

Ingredient concerns

  • CONCERNS
  • DATA SOURCES

Products with this Ingredient

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foundation289 products
concealer96 products
eye shadow60 products
daily use with SPF59 products
antiperspirant/deodorant51 products
facial moisturizer/treatment38 products
lipstick36 products
facial powder29 products
mask27 products
lip liner27 products
BB cream24 products
makeup primer17 products
recreational sunscreen17 products
17 products
body powder16 products
blush15 products
moisturizer15 products
toothpaste14 products
lip balm13 products
nail polish12 products
bronzer/highlighter12 products
diaper cream12 products
eye liner11 products
hair color and bleaching11 products
setting powder/spray10 products
bar soap9 products
facial cleanser7 products
CC cream7 products
body wash/cleanser6 products
serums & essences6 products
anti-aging6 products
exfoliant/scrub6 products
baby sunscreen6 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)5 products
baby lotion4 products
bath oil/salts/soak3 products
shaving cream (men's)3 products
brow liner3 products
foot odor control3 products
around-eye cream3 products
skin fading/lightener2 products
shampoo2 products
shaving cream2 products
body spray1 products
hand cream1 products
damaged skin treatment1 products
conditioner1 products
toners/astringents1 products
lip balm with SPF1 products
hair removal waxes1 products
after shave1 products
bubble bath1 products

Enhanced skin absorption

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Does not cause enhanced penetrationOpen scientific literature

Occupational hazards

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Strong evidence of occupational hazardsOpen scientific literature
Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate dosesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlifeCanada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)
Found to be persistent and bioaccumulative in wildlifeOpen scientific literature

Decreased skin absorption

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Limited potential to absorb into the skin.Open scientific literature

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Possible human respiratory toxicantAssociation of Occupational and Environmental Clinics
Limited evidence of any toxicityScorecard.org Toxicity Information
One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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CONCERN REFERENCE
One or more animal studies show any or allergenic effects at very low dosesOpen scientific literature

Ecotoxicology

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Wildlife and environmental toxicityCPS&Q - Classification & Labelling
Wildlife and environmental toxicityOpen scientific literature

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food

Informational

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug AdministrationCTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmeticsFDA Color Additive Status

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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CONCERN REFERENCE
Not likely to be a reproductive toxicant in humansOpen scientific literature

Data gaps

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CONCERN REFERENCE
6924 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed
  • Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
  • AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
  • ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
  • EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
  • CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
  • CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

Understanding scores

Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.

Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.

HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES

Hazard score

The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED™ mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.

Score legend

Data availability

The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.

NONE LIMITED FAIR GOOD ROBUST
Low Availability
Moderate Availability
High Availability

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