- This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
Other ConcernsPersistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (moderate), Ecotoxicology (low), and Occupational hazards (moderate)
Restricted: EWG VERIFIED products cannot contain this ingredient without adequate substantiation
Zinc Oxide is an inorganic oxide used as a colorant and sunscreen agent.
See how this product scores for common concerns.
MODERATEAllergies & Immunotoxicity
LOWDevelopmental and Reproductive Toxicity
- DATA SOURCES
Products with this Ingredient
|eye shadow||59 products|
|daily use with SPF||50 products|
|facial moisturizer/treatment||34 products|
|recreational sunscreen||31 products|
|facial powder||25 products|
|lip liner||23 products|
|body powder||18 products|
|BB cream||18 products|
|lip balm||18 products|
|setting powder/spray||17 products|
|CC cream||15 products|
|makeup primer||14 products|
|nail polish||12 products|
|bar soap||10 products|
|hair color and bleaching||9 products|
|baby sunscreen||8 products|
|diaper cream||8 products|
|serums & essences||7 products|
|eye liner||7 products|
|facial cleanser||6 products|
|antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)||6 products|
|body wash/cleanser||5 products|
|baby lotion||4 products|
|hair spray||3 products|
|foot odor control||3 products|
|around-eye cream||3 products|
|skin fading/lightener||2 products|
|shaving cream (men's)||2 products|
|brow liner||2 products|
|bath oil/salts/soak||2 products|
|lip balm with SPF||2 products|
|lip gloss||2 products|
|baby powder||2 products|
|body spray||1 products|
|shaving cream||1 products|
|bubble bath||1 products|
|hair removal waxes||1 products|
Enhanced skin absorption
|Does not cause enhanced penetration||Open scientific literature|
|Strong evidence of occupational hazards||Open scientific literature|
|Allowed workplace exposures restricted to moderate doses||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Moderate evidence of occupational hazards||Open scientific literature|
Decreased skin absorption
|Limited potential to absorb into the skin.||Open scientific literature|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife||Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)|
|Found to be persistent and bioaccumulative in wildlife||Open scientific literature|
|Not suspected to be persistent||Open scientific literature|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Open scientific literature|
|One or more animal studies show any or allergenic effects at very low doses||Open scientific literature|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Possible human respiratory toxicant||Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics|
|Limited evidence of any toxicity||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs|
|Associated with any toxicity||Open scientific literature|
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Open scientific literature|
|Classified as a low human health priority||Open scientific literature|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||Open scientific literature|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Open scientific literature|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration||CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmetics||FDA Color Additive Status|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Everything Added to Food|
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Food Additive Status|
|Not likely to be a reproductive toxicant in humans||Open scientific literature|
|6924 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
- AOEC (Association of Occupational and Environmental Clinics). 2009. AEOC exposures codes and asthmagen designation.
- ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
- CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
- CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/%7Edms/opa-appa.html, Oct 16, 2006.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.
Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES
The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED® mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.
The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.