Other ConcernsEnhanced skin absorption, Persistence and bioaccumulation (moderate), Non-reproductive organ system toxicity (low), and Ecotoxicology (high)
Restricted: EWG VERIFIED products cannot contain this ingredient without adequate substantiation
See how this product scores for common concerns.
MODERATEAllergies & Immunotoxicity
MODERATEDevelopmental and Reproductive Toxicity
- DATA SOURCES
Products with this Ingredient
|antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)||8 products|
|eye shadow||5 products|
|facial powder||3 products|
|recreational sunscreen||2 products|
|lip balm with SPF||2 products|
|eye liner||1 products|
|brow liner||1 products|
Enhanced skin absorption
|Nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skin||Open scientific literature|
|Suspected nano-scale ingredients with potential to absorb into the skin||Nanomaterial Database|
|Allowed workplace exposures restricted to very low doses||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Persistent, bioaccumulative in wildlife||Canada PBTs - Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET)|
|Found to be persistent and bioaccumulative in wildlife||Open scientific literature|
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergies||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|Limited evidence of any toxicity or allergies||Open scientific literature|
|Possible human reproductive or developmental toxin||Open scientific literature|
|Limited evidence of reproductive toxicity||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Limited evidence of cardiovascular or blood toxicity||Scorecard.org Toxicity Information|
|One or more animal studies show classified as toxic effects at moderate doses (low dose studies may be unavailable for this ingredient)||EPA Toxic Release Inventory PBTs|
|Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as a low human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Wildlife and environmental toxicity||EPA Clean Water Act - Priority Pollutants|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Insufficient data to determine safety||EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)|
|119593 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Occupational hazards related to handling||CPS&Q - Classification & Labelling|
|Limited or incomplete evidence of cancer according to safety/hazard data – government assessment cannot classify as human carcinogen due to data gaps||EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)|
- Open scientific/peer reviewed literature
- NanoWerk. 2007. Nanomaterial Database. Available online: http://www.nanowerk.com/phpscripts/n_dbsearch.php
- CPS&Q (Consumer Products Safety & Quality) formely known as ECB (European Chemicals Bureau). 2008. Classification and Labelling: Chemicals: Annex VI of Directive 67/548/EEC through the 31st ATP.
- EC (Environment Canada). 1994. Accelerated Reduction/Elimination of Toxics (ARET). ARET substance list of persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- ED (Environmental Defense). 2006. Scorecard _ The Pollution Information Site. http://www.scorecard.org.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 1999. Toxics Release Inventory Program. PBT Chemical Rule.
- EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). 2008. Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Evidence for human carcinogenicity based on 1986-2005 guidelines.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
Cosmetics and personal care products are not required to be tested for safety before being allowed on the market. The Skin Deep® scoring system was designed to help the public understand whether a product is safe to use or whether it contains ingredients of concern.
Every product and ingredient in Skin Deep gets a two-part score – one for hazard and one for data availability. The safest products score well by both measures, with a low hazard rating and a fair or better data availability rating.HOW WE DETERMINE SCORES
The Skin Deep ingredient hazard score, from 1 to 10, reflects known and suspected hazards linked to the ingredients. The EWG VERIFIED® mark means a product meets EWG’s strictest criteria for transparency and health.
The Skin Deep data availability rating reflects the number of scientific studies about the product or ingredient in the published scientific literature.