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TRIPHENYL PHOSPHATE

Score:

Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Neurotoxicity (moderate), Endocrine disruption (low), and Multiple, additive exposure sources (moderate)

Cancer

Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is MODERATE

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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nail polish16 products

Developmental/reproductive toxicity

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Concern Reference
Possible human reproductive toxicantMeeker JD, Stapleton HM House dust concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants in relation to hormone levels and semen quality parameters. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Mar;118(3):318-23. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901332.
One or more animal studies show reproductive and endocrine effects at low dosesLiu X, Ji K, Jo A, Moon HB, Choi K Effects of TDCPP or TPP on gene transcriptions and hormones of HPG axis, and their consequences on reproduction in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquat Toxicol. 2013 Jun 15;134-135:104-11. doi: 10.1016

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
In other consumer products besides personal care products Stapleton HM, Allen JG, Kelly SM, Konstantinov A, Klosterhaus S, Watkins D, McClean MD, Webster TF Alternate and new brominated flame retardants detected in U.S. house dust. Environ Sci Technol. 2008 Sep 15;42(18):6910-6.

Neurotoxicity

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Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show neurodevelopmental effects at very low dosesOliveri AN, Bailey JM, Levin ED Developmental exposure to organophosphate flame retardants causes behavioral effects in larval and adult zebrafish. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2015 Sep 5.

Endocrine disruption

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Concern Reference
One or more studies show endocrine disruption at low dosesChunsheng Liu, Qiangwei Wang, Kang Liang, Jingfu Liu, Bingsheng Zhou, Xiaowei Zhang, Hongling Liu, John P Giesy & Hongxia Yu. 2013. Effects of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate and triphenyl phosphate on receptor-associated mRNA expression in zebrafish embryos/larvae. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 128-129, 147-57.
One or more animal studies show endocrine disruption at moderate dosesGregory M Isales, Rachel A. Hipszer, Tara D. Raftery, Albert Chen, Heather M. Stapleton & David C. Volz. 2015. Triphenyl phosphate-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish: potential role of the retinoic acid receptor. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 161, 221-30.
Human case studies indicate endocrine disruption effectMeeker JD, Stapleton HM House dust concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants in relation to hormone levels and semen quality parameters. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Mar;118(3):318-23. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901332.
Associated with endocrine disruptionBelcher SM, Cookman CJ, Patisaul HB, Stapleton HM In vitro assessment of human nuclear hormone receptor activity and cytotoxicity of the flame retardant mixture FM 550 and its triarylphosphate and brominated components. Toxicol Lett. 2014 Jul 15;228(2):93-102. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.04.017.

Allergies/immunotoxicity

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Concern Reference
Limited evidence of immune system toxicity or allergiesNational Library of Medicine HazMap

Ecotoxicology

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Concern Reference
Suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
3015 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be persistentEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • Meeker JD, Stapleton HM House dust concentrations of organophosphate flame retardants in relation to hormone levels and semen quality parameters. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Mar;118(3):318-23. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901332.
  • Liu X, Ji K, Jo A, Moon HB, Choi K Effects of TDCPP or TPP on gene transcriptions and hormones of HPG axis, and their consequences on reproduction in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio). Aquat Toxicol. 2013 Jun 15;134-135:104-11. doi: 10.1016
  • Stapleton HM, Allen JG, Kelly SM, Konstantinov A, Klosterhaus S, Watkins D, McClean MD, Webster TF Alternate and new brominated flame retardants detected in U.S. house dust. Environ Sci Technol. 2008 Sep 15;42(18):6910-6.
  • Oliveri AN, Bailey JM, Levin ED Developmental exposure to organophosphate flame retardants causes behavioral effects in larval and adult zebrafish. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2015 Sep 5.
  • Chunsheng Liu, Qiangwei Wang, Kang Liang, Jingfu Liu, Bingsheng Zhou, Xiaowei Zhang, Hongling Liu, John P Giesy & Hongxia Yu. 2013. Effects of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate and triphenyl phosphate on receptor-associated mRNA expression in zebrafish embryos/larvae. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 128-129, 147-57.
  • Gregory M Isales, Rachel A. Hipszer, Tara D. Raftery, Albert Chen, Heather M. Stapleton & David C. Volz. 2015. Triphenyl phosphate-induced developmental toxicity in zebrafish: potential role of the retinoic acid receptor. Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) 161, 221-30.
  • Belcher SM, Cookman CJ, Patisaul HB, Stapleton HM In vitro assessment of human nuclear hormone receptor activity and cytotoxicity of the flame retardant mixture FM 550 and its triarylphosphate and brominated components. Toxicol Lett. 2014 Jul 15;228(2):93-102. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2014.04.017.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.

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