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Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Contamination concerns (high)


Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

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lipstick1325 products
foundation544 products
concealer430 products
beach & sport sunscreen265 products
eye shadow259 products
lip gloss255 products
moisturizer235 products
moisturizer with SPF235 products
blush203 products
bronzer/highlighter190 products
facial moisturizer/treatment187 products
conditioner185 products
serums & essences156 products
shampoo129 products
mask123 products
brow liner107 products
body wash/cleanser103 products
mascara96 products
liquid hand soap85 products
lip balm84 products
eye liner78 products
facial powder72 products
facial cleanser67 products
around-eye cream58 products
hair treatment/serum58 products
makeup primer53 products
lip liner50 products
lip balm with SPF48 products
bath oil/salts/soak46 products
makeup remover45 products
exfoliant/scrub43 products
body firming lotion38 products
BB cream37 products
hand cream35 products
hand sanitizer33 products
shaving cream32 products
baby wipes28 products
hair styling aide28 products
antiperspirant/deodorant27 products
anti-aging27 products
CC cream27 products
body oil21 products
toners/astringents16 products
hair color and bleaching15 products
after sun product15 products
beard oil15 products
bubble bath14 products
styling gel/lotion14 products
shaving cream (men's)13 products
sunless tanning13 products
baby lotion12 products
bar soap12 products
baby sunscreen12 products
polish remover11 products
body spray11 products
diaper cream11 products
beard care11 products
foot moisturizer10 products
hair spray10 products
other eye makeup9 products
fragrance for women9 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)9 products
lip plumper9 products
after shave9 products
baby shampoo8 products
8 products
makeup with SPF6 products
nail treatment6 products
baby soap6 products
oil controller5 products
toothpaste5 products
nail polish4 products
damaged skin treatment4 products
fragrance for men4 products
detangler4 products
depilatory3 products
cuticle treatment2 products
eye makeup remover2 products
baby powder2 products
baby oil2 products
styling mousse/foam2 products
foot cleansing2 products
hair relaxer2 products
tanning oil1 products
muscle/joint soreness1 products
eyelash glue1 products
baby bubble bath1 products
glitter1 products
foot odor control1 products

Contamination concerns

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Concern Reference
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments


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Concern Reference
tocopheryl acetate enhanced photocarcinogenesis in an animal studyGensler HL, Aickin M, Peng YM, Xu M 1996. Importance of the form of topical vitamin E for prevention of photocarcinogenesis. Nutr Cancer 26(2): 183-91.


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Concern Reference
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative (uncertainty in environmental toxicity or persistence/bioaccumulation)Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Uncertain environmental toxin and uncertain persistent or bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
5742 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food


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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
  • Gensler HL, Aickin M, Peng YM, Xu M 1996. Importance of the form of topical vitamin E for prevention of photocarcinogenesis. Nutr Cancer 26(2): 183-91.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from, Oct 16, 2006.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met the program’s impurity restrictions based on EWG review of company data.


EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer


Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer