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Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Contamination concerns (high)


Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

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lipstick1243 products
foundation507 products
concealer403 products
beach & sport sunscreen265 products
eye shadow249 products
moisturizer with SPF235 products
lip gloss227 products
moisturizer226 products
blush197 products
conditioner176 products
bronzer/highlighter173 products
facial moisturizer/treatment172 products
serums & essences146 products
shampoo121 products
mask120 products
body wash/cleanser102 products
brow liner98 products
liquid hand soap80 products
lip balm76 products
eye liner73 products
mascara71 products
facial powder70 products
facial cleanser63 products
around-eye cream55 products
hair treatment/serum54 products
makeup primer50 products
lip balm with SPF48 products
bath oil/salts/soak46 products
makeup remover45 products
lip liner42 products
exfoliant/scrub42 products
BB cream37 products
body firming lotion36 products
hand cream34 products
shaving cream32 products
hand sanitizer30 products
CC cream27 products
anti-aging26 products
baby wipes25 products
antiperspirant/deodorant25 products
hair styling aide25 products
body oil20 products
after sun product15 products
bubble bath14 products
beard oil14 products
hair color and bleaching13 products
styling gel/lotion13 products
shaving cream (men's)12 products
baby lotion12 products
sunless tanning12 products
toners/astringents12 products
baby sunscreen12 products
polish remover11 products
body spray11 products
bar soap11 products
diaper cream11 products
foot moisturizer10 products
other eye makeup9 products
hair spray9 products
lip plumper9 products
baby shampoo8 products
fragrance for women8 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)8 products
after shave8 products
nail treatment6 products
baby soap6 products
oil controller5 products
toothpaste5 products
5 products
beard care5 products
damaged skin treatment4 products
fragrance for men4 products
detangler4 products
makeup with SPF3 products
depilatory2 products
cuticle treatment2 products
eye makeup remover2 products
baby powder2 products
baby oil2 products
nail polish2 products
styling mousse/foam2 products
foot cleansing2 products
hair relaxer2 products
tanning oil1 products
muscle/joint soreness1 products
foot odor control1 products
eyelash glue1 products
baby bubble bath1 products
glitter1 products

Contamination concerns

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Concern Reference
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments


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Concern Reference
tocopheryl acetate enhanced photocarcinogenesis in an animal studyGensler HL, Aickin M, Peng YM, Xu M 1996. Importance of the form of topical vitamin E for prevention of photocarcinogenesis. Nutr Cancer 26(2): 183-91.


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Concern Reference
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative (uncertainty in environmental toxicity or persistence/bioaccumulation)Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Uncertain environmental toxin and uncertain persistent or bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
5742 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food


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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
  • Gensler HL, Aickin M, Peng YM, Xu M 1996. Importance of the form of topical vitamin E for prevention of photocarcinogenesis. Nutr Cancer 26(2): 183-91.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from, Oct 16, 2006.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met the program’s impurity restrictions based on EWG review of company data.


EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer


Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer