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Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Contamination concerns (high)


Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is MODERATE

Products with this Ingredient

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lipstick930 products
beach & sport sunscreen642 products
moisturizer with SPF463 products
foundation427 products
concealer264 products
facial moisturizer/treatment189 products
eye shadow178 products
lip gloss171 products
moisturizer164 products
blush133 products
bronzer/highlighter123 products
serums & essences121 products
lip balm with SPF112 products
lip balm106 products
conditioner96 products
mask85 products
shampoo84 products
brow liner79 products
facial powder76 products
BB cream68 products
body wash/cleanser66 products
body firming lotion64 products
eye liner63 products
facial cleanser49 products
liquid hand soap49 products
mascara46 products
around-eye cream44 products
Facial Sun Care41 products
makeup with SPF38 products
baby sunscreen35 products
makeup primer34 products
exfoliant/scrub28 products
hair treatment/serum28 products
hand cream27 products
makeup remover26 products
anti-aging25 products
shaving cream24 products
CC cream23 products
lip liner21 products
antiperspirant/deodorant17 products
Tanning Sprays14 products
sunless tanning14 products
beard oil13 products
baby wipes12 products
body oil12 products
hand sanitizer12 products
hair styling aide12 products
shaving cream (men's)10 products
bath oil/salts/soak10 products
baby lotion10 products
other eye makeup9 products
lip plumper9 products
hair color and bleaching8 products
polish remover8 products
styling gel/lotion8 products
bar soap7 products
bubble bath7 products
hair spray6 products
after shave6 products
body spray6 products
baby shampoo6 products
toothpaste6 products
after sun product6 products
toners/astringents6 products
baby soap5 products
tanning oil5 products
oil controller5 products
fragrance for women4 products
diaper cream4 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)4 products
nail treatment4 products
baby oil2 products
detangler2 products
cuticle treatment2 products
nail polish2 products
styling mousse/foam2 products
Oils & Serums2 products
baby powder1 products
eye makeup remover1 products
foot cleansing1 products
eyelash glue1 products
damaged skin treatment1 products
Under Eye Concealers1 products
foot moisturizer1 products
muscle/joint soreness1 products
depilatory1 products
hair relaxer1 products
fragrance for men1 products
foot odor control1 products

Contamination concerns

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Concern Reference
Human skin toxicant or allergen - strong evidenceCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments


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Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high dosesGensler HL, Aickin M, Peng YM, Xu M 1996. Importance of the form of topical vitamin E for prevention of photocarcinogenesis. Nutr Cancer 26(2): 183-91.


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Concern Reference
Suspected to be an environmental toxin and be persistent or bioaccumulative (uncertainty in environmental toxicity or persistence/bioaccumulation)Environment Canada Domestic Substance List
Uncertain environmental toxin and uncertain persistent or bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
5742 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food


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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List
Classified as a low human health priorityEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
  • Gensler HL, Aickin M, Peng YM, Xu M 1996. Importance of the form of topical vitamin E for prevention of photocarcinogenesis. Nutr Cancer 26(2): 183-91.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from, Oct 16, 2006.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

About this Ingredient's Score Range

  • Products with the EWG VERIFIED mark have met the program’s impurity restrictions based on EWG review of company data.


EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer


Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer