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Data: Fair

  • Other Concerns
  • Functions
  • About the Chemical
  • Synonyms
  • Contamination concerns (high)


Cancer concern is LOW

Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity

Developmental & reproductive toxicity concern is LOW

Allergies & Immunotoxicity

Allergies & immunotoxicity concern is LOW

Products with this Ingredient

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lipstick735 products
beach & sport sunscreen435 products
foundation400 products
facial moisturizer/treatment369 products
moisturizer354 products
concealer259 products
lip balm240 products
lip gloss234 products
moisturizer with SPF210 products
serums & essences201 products
eye shadow155 products
bronzer/highlighter145 products
exfoliant/scrub112 products
conditioner106 products
shampoo104 products
eye liner104 products
blush97 products
facial cleanser96 products
brow liner85 products
lip liner85 products
body wash/cleanser73 products
lip balm with SPF72 products
body oil69 products
mask67 products
around-eye cream64 products
mascara60 products
antiperspirant/deodorant53 products
baby sunscreen48 products
makeup primer42 products
anti-aging40 products
facial powder39 products
hair color and bleaching37 products
hand cream37 products
baby lotion36 products
hair treatment/serum32 products
bath oil/salts/soak31 products
liquid hand soap25 products
hair styling aide23 products
BB cream23 products
makeup remover22 products
CC cream21 products
bar soap19 products
toners/astringents19 products
beard oil17 products
baby oil16 products
fragrance for women15 products
body firming lotion14 products
styling gel/lotion14 products
other eye makeup13 products
shaving cream13 products
diaper cream12 products
baby soap12 products
fragrance for men10 products
toothpaste10 products
vapor rubs10 products
sunless tanning9 products
lip plumper8 products
foot moisturizer7 products
bubble bath7 products
eye makeup remover7 products
baby shampoo7 products
shaving cream (men's)6 products
baby wipes5 products
after shave5 products
muscle/joint soreness4 products
hair spray4 products
detangler4 products
antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)4 products
other men's products3 products
nail treatment3 products
after sun product3 products
cuticle treatment3 products
hand sanitizer3 products
oil controller3 products
makeup with SPF2 products
styling mousse/foam2 products
baby bubble bath2 products
tanning oil1 products
skin fading/lightener1 products
baby powder1 products
foot odor control1 products
eyelash glue1 products
damaged skin treatment1 products
body spray1 products
depilatory1 products
polish remover1 products
mouthwash1 products

Contamination concerns

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Concern Reference
One or more animal studies show tumor formation at high dosesConstantinides P, Harkey M 1985. Initiation of a transplantable fibrosarcoma by the synergism of two non-initiators, alpha-tocopherol and soya oil. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol 405(3): 285-97.

Data gaps

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Concern Reference
Risk assessment method deficiencies and data gaps - Maximum reported "as used" concentration is basis of safety assessment by industry safety panel (Cosmetic Ingredient Review, CIR) - implicit safe concentration limit in productCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments
43489 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemicalNLM PubMed


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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be an environmental toxinEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Multiple, additive exposure sources

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Concern Reference
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Food Additive Status
Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in foodFDA Everything Added to Food


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Concern Reference
Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - anyCosmetic Ingredient Review Assessments

Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)

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Concern Reference
Classified as not expected to be potentially toxic or harmfulEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Persistence and bioaccumulation

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Concern Reference
Not suspected to be bioaccumulativeEnvironment Canada Domestic Substance List

Data Sources

  • Constantinides P, Harkey M 1985. Initiation of a transplantable fibrosarcoma by the synergism of two non-initiators, alpha-tocopherol and soya oil. Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histopathol 405(3): 285-97.
  • CIR (Cosmetic Ingredient Review). 2006. CIR Compendium, containing abstracts, discussions, and conclusions of CIR cosmetic ingredient safety assessments. Washington DC.
  • NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data.
  • EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Food Additive Status List. Downloaded from, Oct 16, 2006.
  • FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.


EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer


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