Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|eye shadow||708 products|
|lip gloss||346 products|
|eye liner||317 products|
|brow liner||239 products|
|lip liner||181 products|
|facial powder||163 products|
|nail polish||161 products|
|lip balm||157 products|
|bar soap||89 products|
|moisturizer with SPF||75 products|
|BB cream||73 products|
|makeup with SPF||66 products|
|makeup primer||58 products|
|facial moisturizer/treatment||57 products|
|hair color and bleaching||49 products|
|serums & essences||46 products|
|around-eye cream||35 products|
|body wash/cleanser||33 products|
|lip balm with SPF||33 products|
|facial cleanser||26 products|
|CC cream||24 products|
|body firming lotion||19 products|
|beach & sport sunscreen||18 products|
|Facial Sun Care||17 products|
|lip plumper||17 products|
|shaving cream||11 products|
|bath oil/salts/soak||10 products|
|hair styling aide||10 products|
|pore strips||6 products|
|tooth whitening||6 products|
|sunless tanning||5 products|
|nail treatment||5 products|
|baby lotion||5 products|
|styling gel/lotion||5 products|
|other eye makeup||4 products|
|Oils & Serums||3 products|
|shaving cream (men's)||3 products|
|body powder||3 products|
|oil controller||3 products|
|fragrance for women||3 products|
|Lip Stain||3 products|
|body oil||2 products|
|liquid hand soap||2 products|
|baby soap||2 products|
|baby oil||1 products|
|baby sunscreen||1 products|
|baby shampoo||1 products|
|fragrance for men||1 products|
|eyelash glue||1 products|
|damaged skin treatment||1 products|
|Under Eye Concealers||1 products|
|hand cream||1 products|
|antiperspirant/deodorant (men's)||1 products|
|bubble bath||1 products|
|baby toothpaste||1 products|
|baby bubble bath||1 products|
|body spray||1 products|
|Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Unbound particles of respirable size listed as a Carcinogen: California Proposition 65||California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency) 2012. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. Updated July 2012.|
|Limited evidence of carcinogenicity||World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 47, 93 ;in prep.|
|Limited evidence of carcinogenicity||NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as medium human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Decreased skin absorption
|The amounts of titanium found in the tape strips and skin preparations were in the order of the analytical determination limit. No Ti was found in the receptor fluid at any sampling time.||Gamer AO, Leibold E, et al (2006). "The in vitro absorption of microfine zinc oxide and titanium dioxide through porcine skin." Toxicology in Vitro 20: 301-307.|
|21244 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Everything Added to Food|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmetics||FDA Color Additive Status|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration||CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency) 2012. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. Updated July 2012.
- World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 47, 93 ;in prep.
- NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- Gamer AO, Leibold E, et al (2006). "The in vitro absorption of microfine zinc oxide and titanium dioxide through porcine skin." Toxicology in Vitro 20: 301-307.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
- CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
- This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
ABOUT THE SKIN DEEP® RATINGS
EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer
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Beyond providing Skin Deep® as an educational tool for consumers, EWG offers its EWG VERIFIED™ mark as a quick and easily identifiable way of conveying personal care products that meet EWG's strict health criteria. Before a company can use EWG VERIFIED™ on such products, the company must show that it fully discloses the products' ingredients on their labels or packaging, they do not contain EWG ingredients of concern, and are made with good manufacturing practices, among other criteria. Note that EWG receives licensing fees from all EWG VERIFIED™ member companies that help to support the important work we do. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer