Cancer: Ingredients linked to cancer in government, industry or academic studies or assessments.
Developmental & Reproductive Toxicity
Developmental and reproductive toxicity: Ingredients linked to developmental and reproductive toxicity, a broad class of health effects that range from infertility and reproductive organ cancers to birth defects and developmental delays in children.
Allergies & Immunotoxicity
Allergies and immunotoxicity: Ingredients linked to harm to the immune system, a class of health problems that manifest as allergic reactions or an impaired capacity to fight disease and repair damaged tissue in the body.
Products with this Ingredient
|eye shadow||669 products|
|lip gloss||335 products|
|eye liner||290 products|
|brow liner||209 products|
|lip liner||171 products|
|nail polish||161 products|
|facial powder||155 products|
|lip balm||142 products|
|moisturizer with SPF||93 products|
|BB cream||75 products|
|bar soap||70 products|
|makeup with SPF||64 products|
|facial moisturizer/treatment||57 products|
|makeup primer||50 products|
|serums & essences||40 products|
|lip balm with SPF||37 products|
|hair color and bleaching||31 products|
|around-eye cream||31 products|
|facial cleanser||28 products|
|body wash/cleanser||20 products|
|CC cream||19 products|
|beach & sport sunscreen||18 products|
|Facial Sun Care||17 products|
|lip plumper||16 products|
|body firming lotion||16 products|
|shaving cream||12 products|
|other eye makeup||11 products|
|bath oil/salts/soak||9 products|
|hair styling aide||5 products|
|baby lotion||5 products|
|styling gel/lotion||4 products|
|sunless tanning||3 products|
|body oil||3 products|
|pore strips||3 products|
|Oils & Serums||3 products|
|body powder||3 products|
|oil controller||3 products|
|Lip Stain||3 products|
|liquid hand soap||2 products|
|shaving cream (men's)||2 products|
|nail treatment||2 products|
|tooth whitening||2 products|
|baby soap||2 products|
|fragrance for women||2 products|
|baby oil||1 products|
|baby sunscreen||1 products|
|baby shampoo||1 products|
|fragrance for men||1 products|
|eyelash glue||1 products|
|Under Eye Concealers||1 products|
|hand cream||1 products|
|baby toothpaste||1 products|
|Allowed workplace exposures restricted to low doses||National Library of Medicine HazMap|
|Possible human carcinogen||California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency) 2012. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. Updated July 2012.|
|Limited evidence of carcinogenicity||World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 47, 93 ;in prep.|
|Limited evidence of carcinogenicity||NIOSH Occupational Carcinogens|
Organ system toxicity (non-reproductive)
|Classified as expected to be toxic or harmful||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
|Classified as medium human health priority||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Decreased skin absorption
|No absorption into intact skin||Gamer AO, Leibold E, et al (2006). "The in vitro absorption of microfine zinc oxide and titanium dioxide through porcine skin." Toxicology in Vitro 20: 301-307.|
|21244 studies in PubMed science library may include information on the toxicity of this chemical||NLM PubMed|
|Not suspected to be an environmental toxin||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
Multiple, additive exposure sources
|Designated as safe for general or specific, limited use in food||FDA Everything Added to Food|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color additive approved by FDA for use in cosmetics||FDA Color Additive Status|
|Industry or government recommendations for safe use: restrictions on concentration, impurities, product types, or manufacturing methods - Color Additives - Exempt from Batch Certification by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration||CTFA International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook|
Persistence and bioaccumulation
|Not suspected to be bioaccumulative||Environment Canada Domestic Substance List|
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2006. HazMap — Occupational Exposure to Hazardous Agents.
- California EPA (California Environmental Protection Agency) 2012. Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment. Safe Drinking Water and Toxic Enforcement Act of 1986. Chemicals known to the State to cause cancer or reproductive toxicity. Updated July 2012.
- World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC Monographs Programme on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans. Lists of Group 1, 2a, and 2b substances can be obtained. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Classification/index.php; Vol 47, 93 ;in prep.
- NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health). 2006. NIOSH Carcinogens List (Potential occupational carcinogens). http://www.cdc.gov/niosh/npotocca.html.
- EC (Environment Canada). 2008. Domestic Substances List Categorization. Canadian Environmental Protection Act (CEPA) Environmental Registry.
- Gamer AO, Leibold E, et al (2006). "The in vitro absorption of microfine zinc oxide and titanium dioxide through porcine skin." Toxicology in Vitro 20: 301-307.
- NLM (National Library of Medicine). 2012. PubMed online scientific bibliography data. http://www.pubmed.gov.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration). 2008. EAFUS [Everything Added to Food]: A Food Additive Database. FDA Office of Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.
- FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) 2006. Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition. Color Additive Status List. September 2006.
- CTFA (Cosmetic, Toiletry and Fragrance Association). 2006. International Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary and Handbook, 11th Edition. Color Additive Information. Washington, DC.
- This ingredient’s score is higher if used in products that are inhalable (e.g., sprays, powders) because of respiratory concerns.
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EWG provides information on personal care product ingredients from the published scientific literature, to supplement incomplete data available from companies and the government. The ratings below indicate the relative level of concern posed by exposure to the ingredients in this product - not the product itself - compared to other product formulations. The ratings reflect potential health hazards but do not account for the level of exposure or individual susceptibility, factors which determine actual health risks, if any. Learn more | Legal Disclaimer
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